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Official Name: Islamic Republic of Iran
Capital: Tehran
Official Language: Persian
Currency: Rial (IRR)
Head of State
                & Government:
President H.E. Hassan Fereidun Rouhani
Foreign Minister: H.E. Mr Mohammad Javad Zarif
Government Website:
Date of joining: 31 March 1999



Introduction From the 6th century BC until 1935, the country that today is Iran was known as Persia. The name, Iran, derives froman ancient term"a -eer-yanem va -ee -jo "in vesta,

The holy book of the Zoroastrians, meaning 'The land of the Aeers ' .This term refers To the plateau upon which the Indo-Iranians, a branch of the Aryans,settled. By the Passing of time, the term "Aeer" changed to "Er" and later to "Ir", and so the official name of the country during the Sassanid period (400-600AD) was Iranshatr or Iranshahr. "Shatr" or "Shahr" means country, and so, Iranshahr meant "the country of the Nobles." Iran comprises of a land area of over 1.6 million Sqm (the 17th country in the world by landarea). Located in the south west of Asia,Iran is one the middle-east countries.Lying below thenorthern temperate zone, between latitudes 25 degree north and 39 degree 47' north and between longitude44 degree 02' east and 63 degree 20' east, the country borders Turkmenistan,Caspian, Azerbaijan and Armenia on The North, Afghanistan and Pakistan on The East, Oman Sea and the PersianGulf On the south, and Iraq and Turkey on the West. It also shares 740 km Caspian Sea Coast line with Azerbaijan,Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia.Iran was a Constitutional monarchy,but turned to an Islamic Republic as desired by the people Of Iran in 1979.Totally, Iran has 8,731km Of border, of which 2,700 km consist of Water borders and 6,031 km for land Borders. The highest point in Iran is Mount Damavand, which is 5,610m high. The longest river is the Karun River with
alength of   890 km ( the only navigable River). Thelargest Lake is the Orumiyeh Lake with an area of 4,868 km and thelargest Island is Qeshm with an area of 1,491 square km.Iran has a very colorful and diversified landscape, ranging from high plateaus to mountain ranges and to plains bordering the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. The dominant landscape color is a delicate brown, like the coat of a dear, but the countryside can vary enormously according to the altitude and vegetation.


Official name:

Islamic Republic of Iran

Head of State:

President H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

National Day:

11th of February (Islamic Revolution of Iran-1979)




1,648,196 sq km

Land boundaries:

4,137 km

Sea boundaries:

2,700 km (Including the Caspian Sea)

River boundaries:

1,918 km

Border countries:

Afghanistan, Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan), Armenia, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan


Mostly arid or semi-arid, temperate along Caspian coast and mountainous temperate along west and north-west.

Natural resources:

Petroleum,  natural  gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use (1998):

Arable land:

300,000 sq. Km


Meadows and pastures: 

900,000 sq. Km


Forest and woodland: 

120,000 sq. Km



258,000 sq. Km


Irrigated land: 

70,000 sq. Km


Agricultural products:

Wheat, rice, barley, potato, grains, sugar-beet, cotton, fresh & dried fruits, dates, pistachio, fruits, nuts,  poultry, meat, dairy products, wool; caviar, flowers and medicinal plants.


74/74 million (2009/2010)

Population growth rate:

1.5% (2009/2010)




Zoroastrian, Christian & Jewish




Persian and Persian dialects, Azeri,        Kurdish, Lori, Baloochi, Arabic

Literacy (2000):





Rial (IRR)

Exchange Rate:

10600 (IRR / 1US$) Annual Average (2011)


331.015 billion US$ (2009)

GDP per capita:

4540 US$ (2009)

GDP growth rate:

2.3 % (2007/2008)

Inflation rate:

10/1 % (2009/2010)

Unemployment rate:

14.6 % (2009/2010)

Total Imports :

55,890  million US $ (2009/2010)

Total Exports :

78830 million US $ (2009/2010)

Foreign Direct Investment :

3500 million US $ (2010)

Total External Debt :



Oil and gas, steel, aluminum, copper, electric and electronic equipment, cement & other building materials, metallurgy, home appliances, iron, textile, rugs and carpets, tapestry, miniature, ceramic, food processing (particularly sugar refining & vegetable oil production), petrochemicals, and car manufacturing & assemblies


Capacity: 22,581 MWH (1997)
Production:  222.256 million(KWH) (2008/2009) 
Consumption:              169,046                 million KWH             (2008/2009)

Transportation :


9025 km (2008/2009)


80,000 km


National Anthem



Modern Persian is the official language of Iran. An ancient literary language, Persian was written in the Pahlavi script before the Arab conquest in the 7th century. A new form written in the Arabic script developed during the 9th and 10th centuries; this is the basis of the Modern Persian language used today. As recently as 1950 there were several distinct dialects of spoken Persian, but due to the spread of public education and broadcast media, a standard spoken form, with minor regional accents, has evolved. Important languages of minority groups that have their own publications and broadcast programs include Azeri (a Turkic language of the Altaic family), Kurdish, Arabic, and Armenian.


Jafari Shiite of Islam has been the official religion of Iran since the 16th century. An estimated 93 percent of all Iranians follow Shia Islam, and nearly all are members of the Jafari group. Since Jafaries believe there are 12 legitimate successors, or imams, to  Prophet Mohammad, they are often called Twelvers (Asna Ashari). The small remaining part of the population belongs to other Islamic denominations, primarily Sunni Islam. Iran also has small communities of Armenian and Assyrian Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians.


 Iran's varied landscape produces several different climates. On the northern edge of the country, the Caspian coastal plain, with an average elevation at or below sea level, remains humid all year. Winter temperatures rarely fall below freezing, and maximum summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 C (85 F). Annual precipitation averages 650 mm (26 in) in the eastern part of the plain (Mazandaran Province) and more than 1,900 mm (75 in) in the western part (Gilan Province).

At higher elevations to the west, settlements in the Zagros Mountain basins experience lower temperatures. These areas are subject to severe winters, with average daily temperatures below freezing, and warm summers, averaging 25 C (77 F) in the northwest and 33 C (91 F) in the central and southern Zagros. Annual precipitation, including snowfall, averages more than 280 mm (11 in) at higher elevations. Most precipitation falls between October and April.

The central plateau region also experiences regional variations. In Tehran, located at an elevation of 1,200 m (3,900 ft) on the northern edge of the plateau, the temperature averages 2 C (36 F) in January and 29 C (85 F) in July. The city receives an average of 230 mm (9 in) of precipitation annually. The arid basins of central and eastern Iran generally receive less than 200 mm (8 in) of precipitation per year. Yazd, for example, averages less than 70 mm (3 in) of precipitation. Its winters are cool, but temperatures almost never fall below freezing; summers are very hot, averaging 38 C (100 F) for most of July and August.

The coastal plains along the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, with average January temperatures ranging from 7 C to 18 C (45 F to 64 F) in Khuzestan Province; average temperatures are even higher in Bandar-e 'Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz. Summers are very humid and hot, with temperatures exceeding 48 C (119 F) during July in the interior areas. Annual precipitation ranges from 145 mm to 355 mm (6 to 14 in) in this region.


Description: Three equal horizontal bands of green (top) white, and red; the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered in the white band: ALLAHO AKBAR (God is Great) in white Arabic script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band, totally 22 times to show 22nd of Bahman, the day of victory of the Islamic Revolution. 




The documented history of Iran begins with the Achaemenian dynasty dating back about 2500 years ago. A significant era marked by decisive unification of the pars tribes during the reign of Astyages and his grandson, Cyrus, who initially formed an extensive, centralized and mighty empire. Although according to will the "Aryans", inhabitants of the vast Iranian plateau, were not the founders of civilization and followed the Babylonian as well as Egyption examples yet their ingenious Souls enabled them to transform those models, institute the first autonomous nation and establish a well-organized financial system. Ironically, Achaemenian's most remarkable military expedition against the Greeks took place in 480 B.C. resulting in both the Iranian's defeat and Seizure of undisputed power by Alexander.

Darius, another prominent king of the mentioned dynasty, divided his empire into tewenty states or "satrapi" and accordingly appointed powerful rulers for all. He also began building roads to facilitate trade, enhance relations among the states and attain his military goals. "Shahi" or king's Road, extending 2400 kilometers, linked Susa to Mesopotamia (located in present day Iraq) while another major road connected Babylonia to India. Establishment of a tax and wage system for the labour, introduction of a unified measuring system, emergence of private banks, granting of loans for agricultural purposes and coin minting highlight the worthy accomplishments of this particular era.

Appropriately, Roman Ghirshman also has noted that once the use of coins became common overland and over seas trade rapidly extended to distant lands.

The Royal messengers, chapars, would travel the long and vast roads of Achaemenian empire to deliver the Royal decrees or commands to the state rulers as well as military commanders and return with reports on the state of affairs. The messengers would then deliver the communications to the "Chapar House", present day post office, situated along the route and the process would continue until reaching the final destination. The "Silk Road" too was one of the ancient trade routes which led to Kashgar from two opposite directions of north and south. Extending westward to Samarkand, Marv and Balkh in northen region of Iran, passing through Central Asia leading to ancient Greece. This major historical route connecting the west to the east was known as the Great Road of Khorasan or "the Silk Road", as previously mentioned. The pre-Islam civilization of Iran takes pride in such innovations, particularly because the management and maintenance of the "King's Great Road" 25 Centuries ago constituted great honor for Iranians among all nations.

In addition to land routes, various sea routes were also frequented and ships with capacities up to 300 tons treaded those waters. The ship's sailors were mainly Phoenicians or Greeks, the officers were Iranians whereas a 10,000-strong military formed Darius's renowned "Immortal Army". More over, excavation of the Suez Chanal (the chanal dug on the order of Darius and slightly different from the present chanal) exhibited the economic and military merits of yet another chapter of Iranian history.

The "Throne of Jamshid" or Persepolis was chosen as Iran's capital during the rule of Achaemenians. However, the corner-stone of Persepolis was laid during the reign of Darius I - ofter whom each king added more sections to the site. Also the cities of Susa, Babylonia and Ekbatan (today's Hamadan) each inturn served as the nation's capital.

During the rule of Ardeshir, the founder of the Sassanide dynasty, a very powerful centralized government developed and for the first time in Iran the religion of Zoroaster (the Iranian prophet) was declared as the official religion. A faith whose essential pillars are laid upon virtuous thoughts, virtuous words, and virtuous deeds.

The Prophet of Islam, Mohammad (BABUHHP) was born in the city of Mecca during the rule of Anushirvan Sassani, and was chosen as the completion of all prophecy and the last prophet during the reign of Khosrow Parviz (610 A.D.). Weakness of the Sassanide government, oppressions of the Kings, and at the same time Islam's human-rights oriented ideology and it's message of equality and brotherhood of mankind were the imperative factors which led to the victory of Islam's army over the Iranian military might in the course of numerous battles. The Prophet Mohammad migrated to Medina from Mecca (622 A.D). Thus, this particular year was chosen as the base of the Muslims' calendar owing to the indisputable effect of this migration. At that time, Islam spread mainly in the Arabian peninsula, and after the prophet in the Southern parts of Iran, Syria, Iraq, Turkey and all of Egypt as well as northern part of Syria embaraced Islam. In the course of all these victories, call to God's religion with the slogan "the unique Allah is Great" became the infrastructure of the Muslims' new, powerful and popular ideology.

Iran's mighty army was defeated in the "Ghadessieh" (15 A.H.) and "Nahavand" (21 A.H.) battles, and the country gradually came under the influence of Islam.

The expedition of the devastating mogul tribe to Iran began (616 A.H) and the last Persian King of the dynasty, Sultan Jalal-e-din Kharazmshah was overthrown by Gengiz's army and later put to death (628 A.H.). The period of Mogul chieftain's rule in Iran was the most oppressed era the nation had ever seen and the conditions did not change until the founding of the Iranian dynasty, the Safavides, and the rule of Shah Ismeal.

The Mogul were removed from Iran's political scene after about 300 years by the Safavides, and Shah Ismeal was crowned in Tabriz (907 A.H). During the reign of Safavie Dynasty relations between Iran and European and other countries expanded and Iran's powerful centralized government, during Shah Abbas's rule, established political and economic ties with great leaders such as Queen Elizabeth, Philip II the king of Spain, India's Akbar shah and also put an end to the domination of Portuguese in the Persian Gulf. The Iranian culture and art once again flourished during the Safavie rule and architechture, carpet-weaving, miniature painting, gilding and handicraft(s) underwent special development.

After the Safavide, alternately weak and strong governments came to power among which the government of Nader Shah Afshar, Karim Khan Zand, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, Naser-e-din Shah and Mozafar-e-din Shah are noteworthy. During the rule of Nader Shah, The Russians were expelled from Iran, the booties which the Ottomans had taken from the country were recovered, Kandhar and Delhi became parts of Iran and once again the Iranian territory was expanded and included a vast area of southeast Asia. Oppression and tyranny became prevelant in the course of the Qajar dynasty's rule due to  treason of courtiers and the Kings' powerlessness and inattention to the state of affairs. The unprecedented and historical measures of Mirza Taghi Khan Amir Kabir, Naser-e-din Shah's prime minister, such as dispatching students abroad for higher education, printing of newspaper, compilation of laws, etc. made him an immortal historical personage.

The new era began with the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. Reza Khan Mir-Panj, commander of a Kazak battalion, occupied Tehran on 22 Feb. 1920, and five years later crowned himself the King with the support of England. Gradually, he began opposing the Islamic culture and tranditions and his despotic rule lasted for 16 years. In 1941 under pressure by England, he abdicated the throne in favor of his son Mohammad-Reza and was exiled into St.Moritz island and then to Johannesburg in South Africa where he later died.

Mohammad Reza too, fairly followed in the footsteps of his father for 37 years of his reign. Following the events leading to nationalization of oil, he was reinstated subsequent to a coup and while England's position with this rule began to deteriorate, the United States gained more influence and power in the country's political, economic and culture affairs.

As his father, Mohammad-Reza too was strongly against the presence and involvement of clergymen in the socio-political scene. After his forced summary referendum concerning the so-called "Agriculture and land reforms" or the allocation of farmland to farmers, Iran's dependence on imported goods, false employment due to relocation of farmers in cities, and "Consumerism", as opposed to "Production", increased sharply which were strongly opposed by the time's scholors and theologians, particulary the late Imam Khomeini. The opposition of both religious scholars and the people to the government in 1963 as well as army's assault on Qom's theological school (Iran's main center for training theologians) coupled with martydom of a large number of those students and the people, paved the grounds for escalation of religious movement within the country and their determination to take over the political arena, materialization of the idea of "unity of politics and religion" in the form of the Islamic Republic of Iran and uprooting of 2500 years of the Kings' despotic rule in this country.

With the victory of the Islamic revolution, for the first time ever the people of Iran went to the polls in April 1979 and voted in favour of the establishment of the Islamic republican system with an overwhelming majority of over 98.8 percent. The assembly of experts then embarked upon formulating the Constitutional law of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This Constitutional law was ofcourse approved by the vote of the Iranian nation. The significant point, however, was the united presence of the people in the presidential election, elections for the Islamic consultative assembly as well as other relevant elections which took place one after the other in order to determine the major and fundamental organs and institutions of the Islamic system. With the establishment of the Islamic government many conspiracies were hatched by the world imperialism. Fortunately, all of them failed due to the presence of the Iranian people on the scenes. The gravest of such conspiracy, hatched with the main objectives of weakening and paralyzing Iran's economic and political system and the occupation of the fertile land of Khuzistan, was Iraqi regime's invasion of Iran directly provoked by the United States in 1980 -- that was only two years following the victory of the Islamic revolution. The war continued for 8 years and included the most savage bombings and chemical attacks leaving much destruction and damages in 4 border provinces of the country in the South and the West. Hundreds of thousands of the best and most faithful forces were martyred or disabled in the war and millions of people became homeless as a result of the war.

This destructive war came to an end in 1989 due to brave resistance of Iranian people and acceptance of the UN security council resolution 598. Moreover, events such as assassination of the political leaders or state officials, economic sanctions and various plans for isolation of Islamic Republic of Iran were all the cost a nation paid in order to establish its first favorite republic.

On fourth of June 1989 the grand leader and architect of the Islamic revolution, The late Imam Khomeini, passed away and the world lost one of its most revered and distinguished religious and political leaders. Besides his role as a political leader, Imam Khomeini was a prominent instructor of ethics who lived in ultimate continence and chastity.

Following the demise of Imam Khomeini, the assembly of experts chose one of the prominent students of Imam Khomeini, a great combatant who had been imprisoned and send into exile by the regim of the Shah many times, as the leader of the Islamic revolution. This noble personage was none but grand Ayatollah Khamenei who had been elected as president of the Islamic Republic of Iran twice following the victory of the Islamic revolution in Iran.

With his election as the leader of the Islamic revolution, the reconstruction programs began in full might and despite all the bottlenecks that the war had created the construction works maintained their pace in the course of first-five year plan designed by the government of president Hashemi Rafsanjani

The government managed to reconstruct the major portion of the ruins, many factories resumed operations, agriculture flourished, the water supply and sewage networks plus great dams were designed and constructed and finally the rate of illiteracy which acted as a barrier in the way of the country's development, reached its lowest. Despite some economic problems, the Islamic Republic of Iran has managed to adopt an independent political and economic policy and relying on local specialized forces extends international cooperation and enjoys a high level of acceptability worldwide.

Renovation of the Silk Road has been transformed into a regional and global demand during the recent years and now a national will strongly supports this constructive desire in the Islamic Republic as well. Since 1988 UNESCO has also reinforced all the relevant international decisions for restoration of this immense ancient road through holding various conferences in the world's famous cities such as New Delhi, Paris, Tashkent and the last of which was held in the picturesque city of Isfahan in 1995.

On completion, once again, this enormous project would revive the historic role of Iran as the bastion of multinational communication, indispensable for the development of regional commerce and cultural relations. Upon disintegration of the former "Soviet Union" in 1985, the policy of friendship and cooperation with the newly independent and autonomous states (situated in the north of Iran) received immediate attention as one of the utmost and perpetual foreign policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

In compliance with the stated policy, therefore numerous multilateral contracts regarding road transportation, economic cooperation and establishment of the sales agencies for Iranian goods were thus signed. Further formation of regional economic organization (ECO) consisting of twelve countries also expedited the implementation of the most strategic railway project in the region, stretching from Eastern China to Europe via Iran's national railway system.

The unique position of this giant commercial highway currently leaves other countries of the world, willing to develop commercial and economic ties with the Central Asian republics, no alternatives but to take full advantages of this vital connective passage -- geographically situated in Iran, China, Russia, Turkey and Afghanistan. Apart from Georgia most of the newly independent states are landlocked countries whose connecting routes with rest of the world, directly or indirectly, could pass through Iran and thus enhancing the Islamic Republic's unique geo-political status world-wide.

Iran's strategic significance, both in the region and in international arena, generally revolves around material and spiritual aspects. Moreover, its material dimension is mainly composed of economic, technical, military and geo-political components while the spiritual aspect derives from the great Islamic ideology, a rich common history as well as the existing racial and cultural interconnections with other nations in the region. Since disintegration of the former Soviet Union this emphasis has undoubtedly increased and the political focal point of the relevant policies of the " The Arab Middle East" has also been redirected towards the east and the north, namely the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Central Asia.

As a linking bridge connecting two of the world's most vital energy reservoirs, the Persian Gulf and the Caspian Sea, the east and westwards proximity of Iran to eleven countries including the oil-rich countries of the Persian Gulf has certainly reassured the regional prestige of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Accordingly, restoration of the Silk Road is currently regarded as one of the essential precursors of more fruitful regional and intercontinental cooperations amongst the "ECO" member countries. Also due to inauguration of Mashhad-Tajan railway and the impending completion of Bafagh-Mashhad railway the above mentioned states would both gain easier access to open sea and have an ever increasing chance of an active incorporation in the global economy.

The Central Asian countries, with an old and excessive dependence on the former Soviet Union, still primarily rely upon imports. Yet the necessary efforts are being made to overcome this economic barrier by exploring various new markets. Despite availability of several socio-economic advantages such as abundant manpower and cheap labour, rich natural energy resources as well as the exportation of raw materials, oil, gas and agricultural products, vast majority of these countries crucially lack the existence of modern and well-organized banking, insurance, transportation as well as other essential commercial services. Fortunately, productive technical assistance and multilateral economic cooperations with the republics not only would ensure the important role of Iran as a catalyst of commercial development in the region, but would also lead all the concerned parties to more constructive participation in the world economy.

As the world's greatest Islamic economic organization possessing distinct religious, strategic, historical and socio-economic particularities, undoubtedly, "ECO" presents Iran with an immense security and economic significance and now tehran proudly hosts the headquarter of this organisation. Furthermore, the linkage of Mashhad-Tajan railways would definitely provide "ECO" and the like with an ideal possibility of attaining their long-term comprehensive goals.

Numerous sources have mentioned various routes for the "Silk Road."Some sources consider the city of "Tun Huang" as the origins of the "Silk Road, located in the western most tip of the Wall of China, while others strongly suggest that the starting point of the said road was in the city of "Loyang" on the south-bank of Huang Ho River. Once reaching the vast "Pamir-Plateau" in Afghanistan, a branch of this ancient road passed through Marv, Samarghand and then led towards iran via Neyshabur.

Marv, Samarghand and then led towards Iran via Neyshbur. In its path the "Silk Road" also connected main cities such as Gorgan, Ray, Hamadan and further joined Iraq through Ghasr-e-Shirin and later arrived at its final land destination adjacent to the Mediterranean coast. As its name clearly suggests, the main role of this ancient road was expediting the safe and easy transport of many important goods from China to Venice among which silk was the incomparable merchandise of the time. For eighteen centuries (BC 200-AD 1600) the ancient world's most principal commercial highway, the "Silk Road" 8000 km in lenght, enomously contributed to meaningful intercontinental, traditional, and cultural exchanges which also give a fresh impetus to commercial development in the region

According to Christiansen: "because the ancient Persians exclusively imported huge quantities of silk from China they were thus able to sell their silk-orientated products in various European markets, at their own desired prices. The Turks' efforts to gain permission for the passage of silk across the Iranian territory were all to no avail and a long and persistent conflict between the Byzantine Empire (395-1453 AD) and the Persians, over the transit of Chinese silk, continued throughout the early centuries of the Middle Ages." Later the Roman and the Chinses attempts at establishing a new silk transit route, without involvement of the Persians, also proved fruitless and even enabled the Persian merchants to control the silk trade particularly throughout Indo-China

Once the Europeans gained complete dominance over East India and the Mediterranean sea routes, at the turn of the 15th Century, their respective companies in the orient also turned their immediate attention to these new routes. In addition, a number of crucial events such as rapid decline in silk production within Persian territories, the oscillation of diplomatic ties between the Ottoman Empire (C1300-1918) and the Persians, and the emergence of new rival silk exporters eventually paved the way for the ironic demise of the ancient "Silk Road."

Fortunately, from now on, all the countries in the region will not only celebrate the 24th of Ordibehesht as the inauguration day of Mashad-Tajan rail ways, but also would acclaim this historic occasion as the anniversary of the revival of the " Ancient Silk Road." The following is an excerpt from the opening speech by the former Iranian president Mr. Rafsanjani: "The occurrence of great events during the early years of the last decade of the 20th Century as well as the emergence of new conditions in the region have led the Islamic Republic of Iran to play its key and proper role, in this decisive era, by renovating the Silk Road as the region's most vital connecting bridge which would further link the countries of the north with those in the Orient -- via the Islamic Republic of Iran... ."












Location: 32 00 N. 53 00 E -- Middle East. Iran is situated in south-western Asia and borders three CIS states (the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan), as well as the Caspian Sea to the north, Turkey and Iraq to the west, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south and Pakistan and Afghanistan to the east.


Area :

Total area: 1.648 million sq. km

Land area: 1.636 million sq. km


Land boundaries

Border countries:

Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km,

Azerbaijan-proper 432 km,
Azerbaijan-Nakhichevan enclave 179 km,
Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km,
Turkey 499 km,
Turkmenistan 992 km.
Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)
Coastline: 2,440 km
Total: 5,440 km

Maritime claims

Contiguous zone: 24 nm
Continental shelf: Natural prolongation
Exclusive economic zone: Bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf Territorial sea: 12 nm


Iran's climate is mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along the Caspian coast
Terrain: Rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
Mountains: Small, discontinuous plains along both coasts
Lowest point: Caspian Sea - 28 m
Highest point: Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m
Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur


Land use

Arable land: 8 percent
Permanent crops: 0 percent
Meadows and pastures: 27 percent
Forest and woodland: 11 percent
Other: 54 percent
Irrigated land: 57,500 sq. km (1989 est.)


International agreements: Party to Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; Biodiversity, Climate Change, Decertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation 

Government & Politics


Name of country: Islamic Republic of Iran (Jomhuriy-e Islamiy-e Iran)
Capital: Tehran
Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (ostanha, singular: ostan);
Alborz, Ardebil, Azarbaijan-e Gharbi, Azarbaijan-e Sharqi, Boushehr, Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, Fars, Golestan, Gilan, Hamedan, Hormozgan, Isfahan, Ilam, Kerman,Kermanshahan, Khorassan Razavi, Khorassan Shomaqli, Khorassan Jonobi, Khouzestan, Kohkilouyeh va Buyer Ahmad, Kurdestan, Lorestan, Markazi (Central), Mazandaran, Qazvin, Qom, Semnan, Sistan va Balouchestan, Tehran, Yazd.

Independence:1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
National Holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)
Constitution:  2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and eliminate the premiership Parliament (Majlis-e Shora-ye-Islami) and the Council of Guardians of the Constitution. Under the provisions of the Constitution all legislations must first be approved by the Majlis and then be ratified by the Council of Guardians. They are signed into laws by the president. Two more legislative bodies were created in 1988 by (the late IRI leader) Imam Khomeini. They were the Expediency Discernment Council (EDC) and the Council of Policy Making for Reconstruction.
Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majlis-e Shora-ye-Islami): Elections last held 14 March 2008 

International organization participation: CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP,FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,




The population of Iran was estimated at 74.4 Million in 2009. Between 1956 and 1986 Iran's population grew at a rate of more than 3 percent per year. The growth rate began to decline in the mid-1980s after the government initiated a major population control program. By 2000 the growth rate had declined to 1 percent per year, with a birth rate of 20 per 1,000 persons and a death rate of 5 per 1,000. In 1998, 44 percent of the population was under the age of 15, 53 percent of the population being between 15 and 64, and only 4 percent  65 or older.

Overall population density in 2000 was 40 persons per sq km (104 per sq mi). Northern and western Iran are more densely populated than the arid eastern half of the country, where population density in the extensive desert regions is only 1 percent of the national average. In 1998, 61 percent of the population lived in urban areas. About 99 percent of rural Iranians resided in villages. Only 240,000 were nomads (people without permanent residences who migrate seasonally), a fraction of the 2 million nomads counted in 1966.

Tehran, the country's capital and largest city, serves as the main administrative, commercial, educational, financial, industrial, and publishing center. Iran's other major cities include Mashhad, a manufacturing and commercial center in the northeast and the site of the country's most important religious shrine; Esfahan, a manufacturing center for central Iran with several architecturally significant public buildings from the 17th and 18th centuries; Tabriz, the main industrial and commercial center of the northwest; Shiraz, a manufacturing center in the south near the ruins of the ancient Persian capital of Persepolis; and Ahvaz, the principal commercial and manufacturing center in the southwestern oil region.

Ethnic Groups

Iran's population is made up of numerous ethnic groups. Persians migrated to the region from Central Asia beginning in the 7th century BC and established the first Persian empire in 550 BC. They are the largest ethnic group, and include such groups as the Gilaki, who live in Gilan Province, and the Mazandarani, who live in Mazandaran Province. Accounting for about 60 percent of the total population, Persians live in cities throughout the country, as well as in the villages of central and eastern Iran. Two groups closely related to the Persians both ethnically and linguistically are the Kurds and the Lurs. The Kurds, who make up about 7 percent of the population, reside primarily in the Zagros Mountains near the borders with Iraq and Turkey. The Lurs account for 2 percent of the population; they inhabit the central Zagros region. Turkic tribes began migrating into northwestern Iran in the 11th century, gradually changing the ethnic composition of the region so that by the late 20th century East Azerbaijan Province was more than 90 percent Turkish. Since the early 1900s, Azeris (a Turkic group) have been migrating to most large cities in Iran, especially Tehran. Azeris and other Turkic peoples together account for about 25 percent of Iran's inhabitants. The remainder of the population comprises small communities of Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Baluchis, Georgians, Pashtuns, and others


Iran Economy

The economy of Iran is the eighteenth largest economy in
the world by purchasing power parity (PPP). Iran's
economy is labeled as a "transition economy", as evidenced by the fact that in
the last few years, a massive economic liberalization program has been
underway. The removal of resource sapping subsidies in all sectors of the
economy, lifting of price controls on a number of goods, and the removal of
tariff and non-tariff barriers in key sectors are all indications of these steps.
Complementing these steps however, has been the implementation of the largest
privatization directive in Iranian history.

In accordance with a privatization decree issued by
the highest authority in Iran, combined with a ground breaking reinterpretation
of Article 44 of Iran's Constitution, which, in past readings, was deemed to
limit private sector participation in key sectors of the economy, Iran's
economy has indeed been undergoing a major 'transition'.

The effects of these steps can be seen in a broad
cross section of the Iranian economy. In the past, state entities were
responsible for over 60% of Iran's GDP. By the year 2010, this figure has
fallen to less than 45%. During the same period, Iran's GDP increased from
$361.2 billion in 2009 to $416.1 billion in 2010 and is predicted to reach
$449.1 billion in 2011.

A key element of Iran's economic strategy has been
the development of non-oil exports. In the year 2005, non-oil exports generated
only $7 billion in income, whereas in 2010 this figure was just under $30
billion, reflecting an annual increase of nearly thirty percent per annum.

However, all of these achievements would not have
been possible, had there not been the development and active presence of a
thriving private banking sector facilitating macroeconomic stabilization and
private banking. Following ground breaking legislation in 1998, allowing the
private sector to establish private banks for the first (since the 1979
Revolution), sixteen private (and privatized) banks are now active in Iran,
with a further forty applications now under review. With over $100 billion in
hard currency reserves and record levels of gold deposits, Iran has been ranked
14th among 138 countries in foreign exchange reserves, ranking Iran 17th
globally based on gross domestic product.

6 Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries & Mines
Forworde The 'transition' in the Iranian economy however is much more far
reaching than the simple implementation of privatization measures and the
execution of broad based macro-economic policies.

Following a demographic population boom between the
years 1976 to 1986, Iran's population of seventy five million is now symbolized
by its youth, with some 45% of the population under the age of fourteen and a
further 26% between the ages of fifteen and thirty years of age.

As a result of this demographic shift, Iran is now
reaping the benefits of a "demographic dividend", the economic theory that when
young working age adults comprise a disproportionate percentage of a country's
population, the national economy is affected in positive ways, as was the case
in East Asia when the demographic dividend drove one third of the region's
economic growth between 1965 to 1990. One of the key elements of a demographic
dividend are innovation and rapid growth. As can be seen in Chapter One of this
publication, scientific output in Iran has grown eleven times faster than the
world average. Concomitantly, with over eight hundred thousand people entering
the work

force each
year, demand for all manner of capital goods, ranging from cars to house hold
appliances are increasing rapidly every year, enabling Iranian companies to
reach economies of scale which afford them the opportunity to compete globally,
as evidenced by the global rankings of two of Iran's automobile companies and
the recent takeover of a leading Korean electronics group by an Iranian company.
As a result of the composition of Iran's demographics, it is foreseen that by
the year 2050, the bulk of the Iranian population will reach their peak
purchasing power, resulting in an almost linear demand curve for all manner of
goods for years to come.

administration continues to follow the market reform plans of the previous one and indicated that it
will diversify Iran's oil-reliant economy. Iran has also developed a biotechnology, nanotechnology, and pharmaceuticals industry. The strong oil market since 1996
helped ease financial pressures on Iran and allowed for Tehran's timely debt
service payments.

In 2010, the economic reform plan was approved by parliament to cut subsidies
gradually and replace them with targeted social assistance. The objective is to
move towards free market prices in a 5-year period and increase
productivity and social justice.

According to
the government, approximately $100 billion per year is spent on subsidizing
energy prices ($45 billion for the prices of fuel alone) and many consumable
goods including bread, sugar, rice, cooking oil and medicine. However, some
experts believe direct subsidies are about $30 billion, depending on oil prices.

The main
indexes of Iran's Economy are as follows:







  Prices in 1388 (21 March 2009-20 March 2010); $391929411514 (USD)



  Per Capita



 (Current Prices in 1388 (21 March 2009-20
  March 2010); $5321 (USD)



  Below Poverty Line


















  Force By Occupation



  19.2%; industry 32.2%; services 48.6%












  March - 20 March






 (Current Prices in 1388 (21 March 2009-20
  March 2010);  $279,770,401,142 (USD)






  petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other construction aterials, materials,
  food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production),
  metal fabricating, armaments, motor vehicle, trailer and semi-trailer and
  other transport equipment and manufacturing services



  Growth Rate









Temporary crops:


  wheat, Barley, Paddy, Maize, rice


 Sugar crops:
  Sugar cane, sugar beets


  Beans(all types), Peas (all types), Lentils


  crops: Soybean, Canola, Olive, Sunflower, cotton


  Tomatoes, Carrots, Radish, Turnip, Onions, Garlic(dry), Cucumbers and many
  other vegetables


  Alfalfa, Clover, Sorghum


  and Indi tobacco, Saffron, Mushrooms, Flower and ornamental plants


Permanent Crops:


  Pears, quince, apricot (all types), Plums, Peaches and nectarines, Cherries,
  Fig, Berries Mulberry for silk worms


  Fruits: Oranges, Tangerines, Limes, Lemons, Grapefruit and other types of
  citrus fruit


  Almonds, Pistachios, Hazelnuts, Walnuts and other types of nuts


  Olive, Strawberry, Dates, Grapes, Kiwi, Banana, Melons and Pomegradenate



  Stock and Poultry Production



  meat, Poultry meat, other Poultry production(Eggs, Fertile eggs), Dairy
  production, Wool (sheep), Hair and soft Wool (goat)






  of Various aquatics by species, Production of Various fish by species













Transportation & Communication


Total: 9025 km
Free ways: total: 1542 km (2007)
Highways: Total: 165,724 km (1997)
Paved: 94,162 km (1997)
Unpaved: 71,562 km (1997)

Waterways: 904 km; the Arvand River (Shatt al Arab) is usually navigable by maritime traffic for about 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use. 
Pipelines: Crude oil 5,900 km; petroleum products 3,900 km; natural gas 4,550 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during the 1980-88 war with Iraq), Ahwaz, Boushehr, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bandar-e Boushehr, Bandar-e Khomeini, Bandar-e Mahshahr, Bandar-e Torkeman, Jazireh-ye Kharg, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye Sirri, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr

Merchant marine

Total: 130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,791,892 GRT/4,891,615 DWT 
Ships by type: Bulk 47, cargo 41, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.)


Total: 41 (1998)

Telephones: 24 million (Nov. 2008)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 6 (2008)
Radios (per 1000 families): 720 (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 32 (1996)
Color T.V. receiver (per 1000 families): 399 (1998)
Black and white T.V. receiver (per 100 inhabitants): 40 (1998)
News Paper circulation (per 100 inhabitants): 40 (1999)




Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran regular forces (includes Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces), Revolutionary Guards (includes Ground, Air, Navy, Qods, and Basij mobilization forces), 

Social Indicators


Children mortality under 5 years rates (per 1000): 37.3 (1997)
Life expectancy at birth M/F: 70/75 (2008)
Doctors (per 100,000): 248 (2008)
Aids Rate (per 100,000): 0.30 (1997)

International Relations

International Relations

According the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, The foreign policy of the country is based upon the rejection of all forms of domination, both the exertion of it and submission to it, the preservation of the independence of the country in all respects and its territorial integrity, the defense of the rights of all Muslims, non-alignment with respect to the hegemonist superpowers, and the maintenance of mutually peaceful relations with all non-belligerent States.

Any form of agreement resulting in foreign control over the natural resources, economy, army, or culture of the country, as well as other aspects of the national life, is forbidden.

The Islamic Republic of Iran has as its ideal human felicity throughout human society, and considers the attainment of independence, freedom, and rule of justice and truth to be the right of all people of the world. Accordingly, while scrupulously refraining from all forms of interference in the internal affairs of other nations, it supports the just struggles of the mustad'afun against the mustakbirun in every corner of the globe.

The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran may grant political asylum to those who seek it unless they are regarded as traitors and saboteurs according to the laws of Iran.

News & Media

Islamic Republic News Agency(IRNA): 

State-run online news agency.



State-run television network broadcast in English. Based in Tehran with several foreign bureaus, 

Tehran Times:


Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei's website:

 Office of the president's website:

 Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations:

 Iranian Parliament's website: 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs:

Ministry of Culture and Islamic guidness :http:

Chamber of Commerce ,  Industries and Minies :

Ministry of Science, Research and Technology:

Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs :

Central Bank of Iran (CBI);

Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization (English)



At a glance

To be updated soon ...

Public Holidays

Holidays & National Days

March 20: The Nationalization of the Oil Industry
March 21: Eid-e Nowrooz (New Year's Day)
April 1: Islamic Republic Day
April 2: Nature Day (13 th day after The New Year, Culmination of the Nowrooz festivities)
June4:Death of Imam Khomeini(1989)
June 5: Revolt of June 5, 1963
February 11: Victory of the Islamic Revolution Holidays according to the Lunar Calendar (varying dates):
Tasu'a and Ashura of Imam Hussein
Arba'een of Imam Hussein Death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and
Martyrdom of Imam Hassan Mojtaba Martyrdom of Imam Reza Birth of  Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Imam Jafar Sadegh Martyrdom of Fatima, Daughter of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)& Wife of Imam Ali Birth of Imam Ali Mission Receiving of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Birth of Imam Mahdi Martyrdom of Imam Ali Eid-ul Fitr (End of Ramadan) Martyrdom of Imam Jafar Sadegh Eid ul-Adha (Sacrifice)
Eid-al Ghadeer

All governmental departments and most business centers throughout the country are closed on Fridays. In the Tehran province, all governmental departments are closed on Thursday as well.


Capital City

Major Cities:

Tehran, Esfahan, Shiraz, Mashhad, Tabriz

Name of the Provinces

1.Ardabil, 2.West Azarbaijan, 3. East Azarbaijan, 4.Bushehr, 5.Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiari, 6.Esfahan, 7.Fars, 8.Gilan, 9.Golestan, 10.Hamadan, 11.Hormozgan, 12.Ilam, 13.Kerman, 14.Kermanshah, 15.Southern Khorasan, 16.Khorasan Razavi, 17.Northern Khorasan, 18.Khuzestan, 19.Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad, 20.Kordestan, 21.Lorestan, 22.Markazi, 23.Mazandaran, 24.Qazvin, 25.Qom, 26.Semnan, 27.Sistan va Baluchestan, 28.Tehran, 29.Yazd, 30.Zanjan

Major Tourist Attractions

The Silk Road
The Silk Road was created many     centuries ago for the trading of silk     and other goods between the eastern and western countries. It also became an important route for the transfer of ideas, languages, literature, science, and technology.
Iran, heir to the ancient traditions             of Persia, was located at the                      crossroads, the center of the route.            As a result, the road to Persia                    became a symbol of humanity's                desire to travel, to explore, and to             learn. The unique position -                      geographically and culturally
- Along the ancient Silk Road providedPersia with a major role in the
world The Silk Road connected the centers of previous Iranian civilizations that were located along the route, and thus, the histories of the Silk Road and Iran were intertwined.At the beginning of the sixth century BC, the trade route started in Babylon, from where it passed through Opis/Ctesiphone (Baghdad), Ecbatana (Hamadan), and modern Saveh - the site of Marco Polo's stopover to see the tomb of the three Magi who had visited Jesus of Nazareth (Jesus Christ). Silkwould reach the markets of Persia and Rome through this long route, and thus, the road came to be known as the Silk Road. It stretched from the western gates of a Chinese city, which is now called Hsian, in the Shanxi province, and passed through the southern part of the Gobi Desert to reach western Turkistan (Kazakhstan).Then, it passed through Sin Kiang (Xinjiang) and Kashgar to reach Ceyhan in Transoxania (Mawara-an-nahr).



After passing through major cities of the
time such as Samarkand, Bukhara, and
Merv, then the Silk Road passed through
Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan), Ishkashim,
Kunduz (Afghanistan), and reached the
Iranian border.In Iran, the Silk Road
Connected the cities of Tous, Neyshabur,
Damghan, Gorgan and Rey before it entered
Qazvin. One of its branches went toward
Azarbaijan and Trabzon, and the other
Branch ran through Hamadan, Baghdad,
Mosul, Antakya (Antioch or Kappadokia),
And Sardis (near Izmir) to reach Istanbul and
Then Rome via the Mediterranean Sea. The
Road also connected India to Tous via
Peshawar, Khyber,Kabul, Kandahar and
Herat. A vast part of this route was under
the control of the Sogdian and the Uighur caravans. Some signs dating to 2000 BC point to the knowledge of silk production, however, evidence of silk during the Achaemenan era is limited to the Chinese silk that reached Iran on the way westward. To ensure the safety of the silk trade and the caravans, King Darius the Great established military checkpoints on the trade routes. A route between the city of Shush and Sardis was built as a continuation of the Silk Road to boost the trade of silk between the eastern and western countries. The Silk Road continued as an important route for the exchange of commodities between various countries during the Parthian era. In this period, Iran, under the Parthian Empire, signed the first trade agreement with China, which was then ruled by the Han dynasty. The Parthians made significant profits from the customs duties levied on the goods transported on the segment of the road that stretched from the Euphrates River to Turkistan (Kazakhstan).The Parthian dynasty,which was in favor of expanding thetrade relations along the Road, closely supervised and secured the routes, and one of its Middle Iranian languages,Sogdian, was the trade language spokenthrough much of the Silk Road's history. During its Golden Age, in the first millennium, this fabled network was an early link between the world's major cultures - Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian and Chinese. In the post-Islamic period, new roads connected the Silk Road to the sea and to the great rivers in Transoxania and Mesopotamia through land routes. In western Iran, the Road connected Kermanshah to Tabriz
 And Tbilisi (Georgia). Parallel to this
Route, one of the Road's branches
Connected Hamadan to Ardabil via
Tabriz. In central Iran, towards the north,
Ray (which was connected to northern
Regions through side roads in the Alborz
Mountains) reached Siraf, an important
Iranian port in the Persian Gulf at that
Time via Kashan, Esfahan and Shiraz.
Located in the southeastern area of the
Caspian Sea, Damghan was the linking
Point of the route to Urganch in Khorezm (Turkmenistan).The route joined the road to Neyshabur. Another road located in the eastern part of Iran connected Neyshabur to Herat, Zaranj, Kerman and Shiraz. Diverting the route to another direction, a path from Merv through Termez and Samarkand served as another starting point for the Silk Road in the Far East. Along these routes there were Caravanserais known as Rabats and Iwans, where travelers could rest, obtain their necessities for the journey ahead, unload their commodities, and conduct trade and business. In order to give bearings and directions to travelers, domes had been built which served as efficient reference points in snowy and stormy weathers.

Planning Your Visit

Being a vast country, Iranhas
regions with differing temperatures during a given period of time, offering
different climates and conditions Depending on the season and the areas one
plans to visit, the weather can be humid, dry, hot or cold. In the northern
coastal areas of the Caspian Sea, the climate
is mild and humid. The southern parts and the Persian Gulf region have a hotter
climate than Central Iran. Northwestern Iran
is about 10 - 15 degrees Celsius cooler than the rest of the country. The north
region of the country, especially, the Alborz foots, are a popular destination in
the spring. Iran's
southern regions provide a pleasant spring-weather getaway during the winter..
At the same time, in Fars & Esfahan, the cold, the snow, and the torrent
change the faces of the cities. The weather of most of Iran is hot

The summer. So, one can enjoy winter and
summer sports during the same period within a few hours. More accurately, from
mid-April to early June and from late September to early November are the best
times to enjoy the matchless beauty of the country.





Iran's plateau climate is relatively dry, and despite the country's location in the world's dry climate belt, the Alborz and Zagros mountain ranges prevent the entrance of humid streams from the Caspian and Mediterranean
seas into Iran. The
country's span across 25 and 40 degree latitude, and the varying height levels allow for a diversity of climates. In the northwest, winters are cold with heavy snowfall and subfreezing temperatures. Spring and fall are relatively mild while summers are dry and hot. In the south, winters are mild and summers are very hot, having
average daily
temperatures that exceed 38° C (100° F) in
July. On the Khuzestan plain, summer heat is accompanied by high humidity.چ


Visa Regulations


A visa is necessary for entry into Iranfor a
stipulated period of time for economic, commercial, cultural and industrial purposes.
It is issued by the Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran for foreign
nationals, after receiving the approval from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The authorized duration of stay is usually up to 30 days.




Types of Visa




Tourists can apply for the Iranian E-Visa
through the I.R.I. Foreign Ministry's website:


After filling out the application form and
entering the required details, users will be given a reference code to pursue their
visa issuance. Once approved, applicants can choose to receive their visa
either at Tehran's Imam Khomeini
International Airport
or at an official agency in their home country.




Free Industrial & Commercial




This visa is issued for two-week stays at
the ports of entry to the Free Trade and Industrial Zone of Iran (Kish Island),
and it may be extended for up to six months at the request of the authorities
of these areas. Note: Foreign nationals, who intend to travel to other parts of
the country, should submit their applications to the office of the representative
of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the area. The application will be reviewed,
and the visa will be issued if approved within 48 hours.




Work Permit Visa


The visa will be issued for foreign nationals
who intend to work in Iran.
Iranian employers must obtain work permits in advance from the relevant authorities.




Entry/ Transit Visa for Drivers


Carrying Cargo


This visa is issued to foreign drivers carrying
cargo to Iran
or other countries. For these cases, it is necessary to coordinate in advance
with the Diplomatic Missions of the Islamic Republic of Iran.




Pilgrimage Visa


A pilgrimage visa is issued to foreign tourists
who wish to visit sacred sites and shrines inIran.




Tourist Visa


The tourist visa is issued to foreign nationals
who are interested in traveling to Iran individually or collectively to
visit the country or their relatives. The applicants must fill-out an
application form in black ink and bring their passport with one photo (for
women with scarf) to the consulate. The process starts when the completed
documents are submitted and takes about three weeks.




Transit Visa


A transit visa is issued for a limited period
of time to foreigners for the purpose of passing through Iran to a third




Student Visa


A student visa will be issued to foreign nationals
who intend to study in


The Islamic Republicof Iran.
To obtain the visa, applicants must take the authorization number from the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iran.




Press Visa


The press visa applies to foreign nationals
who wish to travel to Iran
as correspondents representing print or electronic media for news coverage of events.








Diplomatic & Service Visa


Such a visa applies to dignitaries,
governmental officials and foreign nationals who wish to travel to Iran either
in connection with their official visit (invitation by Iran) or for the purpose
of taking over their permanent/temporary diplomatic/ administrative assignment
in a diplomatic/consular mission or an international organization.




Visa Facilities for ECO Member




Citizens of the Republic
of Turkmenistan can travel to Iran for one month
without a visa, having only their passports.


According to the bill issued by the Board
of Ministers, citizens of the some countries, including the Central Asian ECO
Member States: Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan,
Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, can receive a seven-day visa in less than two hours
at the Imam Khomeini and Mehrabad airports in Tehran as well as at the airports
of Mashhad, Shiraz, Esfahan, and Tabriz. For more information please visit:




Passport Loss


In case your passport is lost, immediately
report to the nearest police station. Then, go to NAJA's General Department for
Foreign Citizens for receiving your exit permit.


Tel: +98 21 88800000


Customs Regulations


The government holds the authority over
the customs affairs inIran.


Travelers and tourists' importing and
exporting goods are duty-free unless they are considered as commercial commodities.




A. Arriving Travelers


When arriving in Iran, one
should receive a customs declaration sheet,


which is distributed in the customs hall, and
fill it out, and submit it to the customs' evaluators and inspectors. The
following goods are considered as a tourists' personal belongings, and their import
into Iran is duty-free: Personal jewelry, personal cameras, non-professional video
cameras and other portable video units, binoculars, portable musical instruments,
portable radios and cassette players, portable PC's, first aid boxes, camping
tents with its basic tools, sporting goods, small boats of less than 5.5
meters, ordinary water and skiing tools, tennis rackets, mountaineering tools,
diving tools, bicycles, golf tools, and other similar goods, baby carriages and
wheel chairs for the disabled.




Note: Sending up to 80 dollars in foreign goods by post to Iranis
duty-free for each person.




B. Departing Travelers


When leaving Iran, one should fill the customs
declaration sheet and submit it to the customs' evaluators and inspectors. Besides
the goods one brings to Iran,
the following non-commercial goods are permitted duty-free: a carpet or two
rugs of utmost 12 sq. meters, handicrafts, musical instruments, industrial products
made in Iran, foreign made industrial products of up to 160 US dollars value,
dried fruits and gifts, ready-made gold without a gem of up to 150 grams,
ready-made silver without a gem of up to 3 kg, and 3 kg of caviar along with
the purchase note given by the airport's shop. Import and export of the


Goods is forbidden:


1. Alcoholic beverages


2. Gambling tools


3. Firearms or any other kind of weapon,
and explosives


4. Narcotic drugs


5. Pornographic publications, pictures,
movies, photos, and any other material which is against Iran's national
and religious rules


6. Tourists and citizens of Commonwealth
countries, who are traveling


To Iran, can export allowed goods equivalent
to the amount they have


Declared to the Iranian bank. For those who
possess the qualifications, exporting goods of up to $1,000 requires no
declaration to the bank and neither does it need the currency declaration.


7. Sending goods abroad by post is free if
the goods are not considered


commercial commodities. These goods should
not be among the forbidden items, e.g. antique goods, genuine works of art,
manuscript books, gold coins and precious stones. Sending foreign products
abroad by post should not exceed $160 for each person. Moreover, it is forbidden
to send hand-woven carpets by post. For more information on the latest bills
and executive bylaws in customs affairs, please visit:


(Iran's Customs Administration








The Iranian Rial (IR) is the official
currency of Iran;
however, to save time, prices are mostly quoted in Tomans. Generally, written
prices are given in Rials and prices quoted in conversation are in Tomans. To confuse
shoppers, shopkeepers will often omit the denomination of high prices, so a
person may be told a jar of coffee costs 2 Tomans (meaning 2,000 Tomans or IR.
20,000) and that a fine rug will cost 300 Tomans (meaning 3,000,000 Tomans or
IR 30,000,000). In conversation, 1 Toman denotes IR 10,000. Most travelers
spend the first few days of their trip coming to grips with this mind-boggling
system, and money changers on the border may exploit this confusion. So, it is
advised to use caution and toalways ask a shopkeeper or moneychanger if they
are quoting a price in Rials or Tomans.




Currency Exchange


The main foreign currency in Iran
is theUS Dollar and the Euro. However, the English Pound, Japanese Yen, Persian
Gulf countries' Rial, Drachma and Dinar, as well as other foreign currencies are
changeable to Iran's
currency in the banks and exchange shops. It is recommended that money be changed
to the US Dollar or Euro before arriving in Iran. After arrival, one can go to
Melli Bank at the airport terminal and change the money to the Iranian Rial.
This bank works 24 hours a day. Other currency branches of the Iranian banks,
as well as the banks located in the hotels can do the changing. Authorized exchange
shops do the changing as well. The "exchange rate" of the foreign
currency to Iran's
Rial in the banks is unanimous, so there is no discrepancy between the rates in
the banks. The foreign currencies' official rates in Rial are announced in the
banks daily.


Note 1: It is highly recommended to not change money anywhere other than the
banks and the authorized exchange shops.


Note 2: It is highly recommended to keep the receipt of a monetary


exchange until leaving the country. This receipt
not only indicates the legality of a purchase, but also enables the exchange of
extra Rials in the bank and the exchange of the desired currency.


Obtaining Cash


There is no limit to the amount of cash
one can bring into the country.


One can also go to one of the branches of
the foreign currency banks in Iran
during one's stay, and open a foreign currency bank account or change money to Iran's currency
and receive traveler's checks.




Credit Cards


Presently, International credit cards are
not accepted in Iran.
For more


Information please call Melli Bank's Card
Service Office: 33922690-1,


33900298, and 33912813.




ATM card


ATM cards will be issued for all
international tourists and travelers at their request by the Iranian Bank
branches located in Iran's
international airports. The cards are accepted by all hotels, restaurants and
shops equipped with POS sets. For more information please visit:




Currency Restrictions


There is no restriction for entering any
amount of foreign currencies into Iran. Afterdeclaring the amount of
the foreign currencies to the clerk at the entrance spots, the clerk writes it
in the passport. This is done to avoid facing any problem in the customs when
taking currency or goods that were bought outside of the country.




Safety & Security


Iranis one of the most secure countries in
the world. The Interior Ministry is responsible for maintaining domestic
security, and the police are the executive arm of this Ministry.




Uniform color and class:


The color of the police uniform is green
(dark green). The traffic policemen wear a white hat. The color of the police
cars is dark green, and the traffic policemen cars are white with a dark strip
on the car body. In case of an emergency, one can go to the nearest police
station or contact 110.






Embassy telephone numbers




Country Code: 0098




Embassy ofAfghanistan,Tehran


Chancery: Corner of 4th,Pakistan St.,Beheshti Ave


Tel: +98-21-88735600, 88735040, 88737151


Fax: +98-21-88735600


P.O.Box: 15875-3368




Consulate General ofAfghanistan,Mashhad


No.52/2, Do Shahid Alley, 3rd Esfand
Sq.,Imam Khomeini Ave.,


Tel: +98-51-97551, 99899


Fax: +98-51-44404




Embassy of Azerbaijan,


Chancery: No.50,Aghdasiyeh Ave.,Pasdaran Ave.


Tel: +98-21-22280063


Fax: +98-21-22284929




Embassy of Kazakhstan,


Chancery: No.4, Masjed St.,Hedayat St.,


Tel: +98-21-22565933, 22565371, 22565934


Fax: +98-21-22546400




Consulate ofKazakhstan,




No.11,Darmangah Sajad St. Doctora Cross Rd.,


Tel: +98-51-817585, 817576, 830547


Fax: +98-51-83465




Embassy ofKyrgyzRepublic,




Chancery: No.12, 5th Narenjestan,
Northern Pasdaran Ave.,
Nou Bonyad Sq.,


Tel: +98-21-2281720, 2281730, 2287486,


Fax : 98-21-2297729, 2287486




Embassy of Pakistan,


P.O.Box: 11365-4551 Chancery: Block No.1,
Ahmad Etemad Zadeh


Ave., Northern
Jamalzadeh, Dr.Hossein
  Fatemi Ave.


Tel: +98-21-66944888, 934334


Fax: +98-21-935154




Consulate General ofPakistan,Mashhad


Opp. of  Bagh-e-Melli,Imam Khomeini Ave.,


Tel: +98-51-29845


Fax: +98-51-29845


P.O.Box: 91375 - 1733




Consulate General ofPakistan, Zahedan


Bazmju,Moghaddam Ave.,


Tel: +98-541-23389, 27787


Fax: +98-541-23389




Embassy of Turkey,


Chancery: No.314,Ferdowsi Ave.,


Tel: +98-21-33115299, 33118997


Fax: +98-21-33117928


P.O.Box: 11365-8758




Counsulate General ofTurkey, Ourumiyeh


No.30,Daneshkadeh Ave.,


Tel: +98-441-228970


Fax: +98-441-231800




Counsulate General ofTurkey,Tabriz


No.516,South Shariati Ave.,


Tel: +98-41-407590, 406791




Embassy of Turkmenistan,


Chancery: No.39, 5thGolestan St.,Pasdaran Ave.,


Tel: +98-21-22542178


Fax: +98-21-22580432






Counsulate General ofTurkmenistan,Mashhad


No.34,Consulgari St., 10-Day Sq.,


Tel: +98-51-47066


Fax: +98-51-99940




Embassy of Uzbekistan,


Chancery: No.6, Nastaran Alley,Boostan St.,Pasdaran Ave.,


Tel: +98-21-22299158,22299780


Fax: +98-21-22299158








A limited malaria risk exists from March
to November in the rural areas of the provinces of Sistan-Baluchestan, Hormozgan,
and Kerman (tropical part); in some areas north
of the Zagros Mountains; and in the western
and southwestern regions during the summer months. Resistance to chloroquine and
sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been reported in the malignant falciparum strain.
The recommended prophylaxis is chloroquine in the vivax risk areas; chloroquine
plus proguanil in the falciparum risk areas.




Food and Drink:


Piped water is normally chlorinated. Bottled
mineral water is available and is advised for the first few weeks of the stay.
Pasteurized milk is available; unpasteurized milk should be boiled. Powdered or
canned milk is available and is advised, but make sure that it is reconstituted
with pure water. Avoid dairy products which are likely to have been made from
unboiled milk.Wellcooked meat and fish are advised, preferably served hot.
Salads served in intercity restaurants may carry increased risk. Vegetables
should be cooked, and fruit should be peeled.




MedicalCenters, Dentists' Offices, and Pharmacies:


Iranprovides low-cost health services while
it offers some of the world's most experienced medical experts. Iran is a pioneer
in providing people with lowcost oral and dental health services and different
cheap medical surgeries and drugs.


There are professional physicians available
in all major cities ofIran.


Vaccination of children and health examinations
of students is free of


charge and obligatory in the whole country.
Hospitals and medical centers are specialized; however, they all offer admission
to emergency patients 24 hours a day.




Health Service hours:


The offices of specialists and general practitioners
of dentistry and medicine are open from 8:00 to 21:00. Some physicians' offices
are closed in the mornings since they work in medical centers and hospitals.
However, their offices are open all days of the week from 15:00 to 21:00 except
on Thursdays and Fridays, when they are closed.






They are open from 08:00 to 20:00. There
are some pharmacies in the


urban areas which are open 24 hours a day.
For getting information on these pharmacies' addresses, please call 191.




Telephone Codes of Major Cities




Tehran: 021


Esfahan: 0311


Tabriz: 0411


Shiraz: 0711


Mashhad: 0511




Major Travel Agencies




1. Passargad Tour


Tel: 22048350-52,


Fax: 22059000




2. Caravan-e Sahra


Tel: 88843390, 88811970,


Fax: 88303623, 88826036


E-mail:[email protected]








Tel: 22710191, 22717179


Fax: 22735222


E-mail:[email protected]




4. Sharq Puya


Tel: 88579901


Fax: 88366165


E-mail:[email protected]


5. Pardisan


Tel: 66431270-2


Fax: 66427470




Tel: 77526252


Fax: 77500617


E-mail:[email protected]


7. Vala Parsian Gasht


Tel: 88516060-6


Fax: 88748582


E-mail:[email protected]






Tel: 88714214, 88722975-77


Fax: 88712927


E-mail: [email protected]




9. Zaman-e-Parvaz


Tel: 88758504 (6 lines)


Fax: 88758508


E-mail:[email protected]






Tel: 88692520


Fax: 88694001


E-mail:[email protected]






To be updated soon ...


Iran Hotels List, 2 to 5 Star Hotels
in Iran



Hotel Name












Distance to Airport



1-Homa Hotel            









Vanak Sq.near to Shopping Center



18 Km to Mehrabad



2-Laleh Hotel









Fatemi St.



25Km to Mehrabad



3-Azadi Hotel









Chamran Highway, Near to Fair



18Km to Mehrabad



4-Esteghlal Hotel









Parkway Cross, Near to Fair



18Km to Mehrabad



5-Tehran Grand Hotel









Motahari St.



30Min to Mehrabad



6-Enghelab Hotel









Close to Business And Shopping Center



30Min to Mehrabad



7-Hoveize Hotel









Taleghani St.



30Km to Mehrabad



8-Kowsar Hotel









Vali Asr Sq.(center)



30Min to Mehrabad



9-Ferdowsi Hotel









Close to National Museum



20Min to Mehrabad



10-Simorgh Hotel









North of City In Vali Asr St.



45Min to Mehrabad



11-Taj Mahal Hotel









Sheikh Bahaie St.



30Min to Mehrabad



12-Eram Hotel









Haqani High Way



30Min to Mehrabad



13-Mashad Hotel









Mofateh St.



30Min to Mehrabad



14-Dizin Hotel









Chalous, Dizin Ski Slope(300m)



95Km to Mehrabad



15-Abassi Hotel









Charbagh St.






16-Kowsar Hotel









Opposite to The Sio Se Pol Bridge






17-Aliqapu Hotel









Charbagh St.






18-Azadi Hotel









Takhti Croos, Masjed St.



30 Min



19-Suite Parsian 20Hotel









Charbagh St.






Aseman Hotel









Pole Felezi






21-Pars Hotel









Zand St.






22-Ario Barzan Hotel









Roudaki St.






23-Parsian Hotel









Roudaki Sq.






24-Eram Hotel









Zand St.






25-Pardisan Hotel









Close to Seda & Sima Park, Kalantari Exp.






26-Qasr Hotel









Imam Reza St.






27-Razavie Hotel









Falake Aab






28-Daruis Hotel









3Min Drive to Shores






29-Parmis Hotel









Parsis Sq. Opposite Pardis Bazar






30-Shayan Hotel









Close to Shore






31-Shaygan Hotel









Behind Paniz Bazar






32-Grand Hotel









Opposite to Venos Bazar






33-Helia Hotel









Sahel St. Next to Zeyton Bazar






34-Qom International Hotel









Helal Ahmar St.



140Km to Mehrabad



35-Hormez Hotel



Bandar Abbas






Imam Khomeini Blvd.






36-Delvar Hotel









Raees Ali Delvani St.






37-Kerman Inn









Shafa Cross, Jomhori Blvd.






38-Semnan Jahangardi Hotel









Moalem Sq. Basij Blvd.



180Km to Shahroud



39-Azadi Khazar Hotel









near to Namak Abrod






40-Azadi Abadan Hotel









near to Port






41-Boali Hotel









Boali St.






42-Azadi Shahr Kord Hotel









Farabi St.






43-Azadi Ramsar Hotel









Rajaee St.






44-Ghachsar Hotel









near to Dizin Ski Slope



65Km of Karaj-Chalous












, Moshiri Blvd.Enghelab St.






46-Safaieyeh Hotel









Timsar Falahy St.






47-Laleh Hotel









basij St.






48-Malek O tojar Hotel









Qiam St.Amir Chakhmaq Sq.






49-Pars Hotel









Abedi Av. Azadgan St.






50-Azadi Bam Hotel









Janbazan Blvd. Dasht Bagh






51-Pars Hotel









Jomhory Blvd.Farhangian Cross






52-Arg-E-Jadid Hotel









Jomhory Blvd.Farhangian Cross






53-El-Goli Hotel









El-Goli Park






54-Tabriz Hotel









Imam Khomeini St. Daneshgah Sq.






55-Homa Hotel



Bandar Abbas






Meraj St. Pasdaran Blvd.






56-Kadoosan Hotel









Azadi Blvd.






57-Nahar Khoran Hotel









Nahar Khoran Blvd.






58-Sanandaj Hotel









Pasdaran St.






59-Laleh Hotel









Daraiee St.






60-Zanjan Grand Hotel









Basij Sq.






61-Yasudj Parsian Hotel









Namaz Blvd.






61-Lipar Hotel









Free Zone Chabahar






62-Amir Kabir Hotel









Amir Kabir St.



30min to Railway



63-Amir Kabir Hotel









3Km of Tehran Road






64-Dalaho Hotel









Ferdowsi St.






65-Darya Hotel









Basij Sq.






66-Sahel Hotel









Val Fajr St.






67-Ranjy Hotel









17Shahrivar Sq.



6Hours to Uromiye



68-Koohrang Hotel









Koohrang Area






69-Birjand Inn









Artesh St.






70-Kamelia Hotel









Sarbedaran Blvd.






71-Neishabour Inn









Imam Khomeini St.



15Min to Railway



72-Negin Hotel









Imam Reza Sq.






Oxin Hotel









Pasdaran Blvd.






73-Bandar Grand Hotel



Imam Khomeini Port












74-Esteghlal Hotel









Motahari Blvd.






75-Marmar Hotel









Khameneie Bolv.



10 - 15Min to Railway



76-Lar Inn









Jomhori Blvd.






77-Nimrooz Hotel









Daneshgah Blvd.






78-Zarivar Hotel









Daryache Blvd.






79-Mahan Inn









Qarani Sq.






80-Azadegan Hotel









Sahrake Tavon






81-Resalat Hotel









Ferdowsi Sq.






82-Spinas Hotel









Next to Police Station






83-Sefid Kenar Hotel



Anzali Port






6Km of Talesh Road






84-Lahijan Inn









Sepah Sq.






85-Setareh Darya Inn









Chamkhale Coast Area






86-Esteghlal Hotel



Khoram Abad






Daneshjoo Sq.






87-Khazar Shahr Complex









Freydoonkenar-Babolsar Road






88-Asram Hotel









Tajan Bridge



30 Min



89-Sadra Hotel









Karim Abad St.






90-Narenjestan Hotel









Mahmood Abad-Noor Road






91-KSt.h Hotel









Sanati City






92-Qeshm Hotel









Golha Sq.






93-Diploomat Hotel









Azadegan Blvd.






94-Mahalat Complex









Mahalat Complex






95-Shahroud Inn









Ferdowsi St.



12Km (20 Min)



96-Sabz Hotel



Khoram Shahr






Shohada Blvd.



5 Min



97-Kasra Hotel









Rahkarbala Blve.






98-Marjan Hotel









Keshvary Sq.






99-Cliff Hotel









Kandovan Village



45Km Far From Tabriz



100-Aria Hotel









3Km Masoule - Fooman















First Entrance of City















Imam Khomeini Sq.






103-Deniz Hotel









Next to Uromiye Lake















Marvdasht-Takht-e-Jamshid Road






105-Azadi Hotel









Eram Blvd.






106-Deniz Hotel









Bari Holiday Resort






online (electronic) reservation is available for all hotels through the
following sites:




Airline and Local Transport

How to get there and away By Plane

Most overseas travelers from Europe arrive
in Iran by way of the Mehrabad
airport in Tehran.
Currently, most flights from the Middle East, Central and South Asia land at
the new Imam Khomeini
International Airport
based 37km southwest of Tehran, where all international
flights will land within a fewyears.There are 70 smaller regional airports, for
example, those in Shiraz, Mashhad, and Isfahan, and they have
daily flights to many international destinations. Dubai has scheduled flights
to many Iranian cities, including Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Kerman, Lar,
Mashhad, Tabriz, Kish Island, Bandar Abbas, Bushher, ZahedanFlights are
operated by Emirates (for Tehran), Iran Air, Iran Aseman Airlines, Mahan Air and
other Iranian companies. Fares are relatively cheap on Iranian carriers,
depending on the destination and the time of booking. Iran Air connects Tehran with some of the major European cities as well as some
of the destinations in Asia and the Middle East.
European companies based in Tehran
include British Airways, Lufthansa, KLM, Alitalia, Turkish Airlines, Austrian
Airlines, Aeroflot and Air France. The Middle-Eastern airlines include: Saudi
Arabian Airlines, Emirates, Syrian Airlines and Egypt Air. There are no direct
flights from the U.S.A at present, but one could travel via either Europe or Dubai. Visitors from Australia or New
Zealand can consider travelling viaDubai.


IranAir Offices around the ECORegion

Ashgabat: 510641-2

Baku: 9475540

Istanbul: 2250255-7

Karachi: 515001,


Tashkent: 504444,




By Train

Iran's railroads area revitalization of theSilk Road, which connects the

north, south, west, and east of the
country. Tourists can enjoy traveling and can banefit from the cargo
transportation and the transit services provided by the following routes:
European countries and Caucasia by the Tehran-Tabriz railroad, Central Asian
countries by the Tehran Mashhad-Sarakhs railroad, and the countries in the
Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean regions by
the Tehran- Bandar Abbas railroad.

"RAJA" passenger trains provide
regular services from Tehran to Turkey, Syria
and Turkmenistan.
Other routes include:


Route No. 1: Tehran-Tabriz-Julfa: 884 kilometers,
continued toNakhjavan,Azerbaijan.

Route No. 2: Tehran-Tabriz-Razi: 958 kilometers,
continued toTurkey.

Route No. 3: Tehran-Bandar Abbas-Turkman: 461
kilometers, continued toTurkmenistan.

Route No. 4: Tehran-Mashhad-Sarakhs: 1,047 kilometers,
continued to


Route No. 5: Tehran-Bandar Imam Khomeini (ImamKhomeini
Port): 927 kilometers, continued toPersian Gulf region.

Route No. 6: Tehran-Bandar Abbas: 1,386 kilometers,
continued to Persian Gulf and the Gulf


"Iran's Railroad Transit Lines:

1. Bandar Abbas-Sarakhs-Merv-Moscow

2. Bandar Abbas-Sarakhs-Merv-Almaty-Beijing

3. Bandar Abbas -Julfa-Baku-Russia

4. Bandar Abbas -Razi-Bucharest-Belgrade

5. Bandar


"Trans-Asia train: The Trans-Asia train connects Tehran, Mashhad, Sarakhs, Mary, Farab, Bukhara,
Tashkent, and
Almaty. This route continues to Istanbul,
Turkey. Traveling
by this train to Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan,
Kirghizstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan requires a visa for each
country. However, passing through these countries does not necessitate a
transit visa.


"Tehran-Istanbul-Tehran train:

The International passenger trains forIranrun weekly to/fromIstanbul

(Turkey), Damascus (Syria), and Quetta (Pakistan).The
Istanbul service runs via Ankara, includes a ferry over Lake Van, crosses the
Iranian border, and then stops at Tabriz before arriving in Tehran. The journey
takes about 70 hours (3 nights travelling). The train includes couchettes and a
dining car. The Syria service does not cross Iraq;it stopsat Aleppo before
crossing the Turkish border, heads to Lake Van, and runs along a route similar
to the Istanbul service. This journey takes 54 hours (2 nights travelling).
Couchettes are available between Lake Van and Tehran,
but the Syrian leg between Damascus and Lake Van contains only reclining seats. A dining car is
at service occasionally. The Quetta-Zahedan line connects Pakistan and Iran by rail. There is no
connection between the Zahedan railway and the rest of the Iranian Railway system,
which means that one must take the bus or other transportation from Zahedan to
Bam, the nearest railway. A train leaves twice each month from Quetta to Zahedan, and the journey takes 11


By Sea

Passengers can travel by sea to Iranvia the Persian Gulf, the Seaof Oman,
and the Caspian Sea. The significant ports of
the Caspian Sea include Anzali, Astara, Nowshahr, Bandar Gaz, and Bandar
Torkaman, which connect Iran
to Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia


By Roads

With more than 51,300km (31,800 miles) of
paved roads and 490km (304 miles) of motorways, the road network is extensive.
Tourists can travel from Turkey,
Iraq, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan,
Armenia, Pakistan and Afghanistan
to Iran.
The two main roads, the A1 and A2, link the Iraqi and Pakistani borders and the
Afghan and Turkish borders, respectively. Connective ways between the major cities
and the country's main ways are asphalt paved and have good quality. You should
drive from the right side and observe international regulations. Traffic flows
on the right side of the road.




By Bus

One can find Seir-o-Safar agencies in Istanbul, Antalyaand Ankarato buy cheap bus tickets for Tehran. Also, one can enter from Pakistanvia the border crossing between Taftan
(on the Pakistani side) and Zahedan (on the Iranian side) as long as one has a
valid visa for Iran.
One can NOT get a visa at the border.The overnight buses leave from Quetta, arriving in
Taftan in the early morning. From there, one can hire a taxi to the border.
Once across the border, one needs to organize transportation to Zahedan where
buses depart for the destinations to Eastern Iranian cities, such as Bam,Kerman andYazd.


Traveling Around By Air

Iran Air runs services to Ahvaz,
Esfahan, Kish, Mashhad, Shiraz,
Tabriz, Tehran
and Zahedan and other major cities. Aseman Air and Mahan Air also run services
to the major cities. The vast size of Iran makes internal flights the most
practical method of transport.


By Train

RAJA Trains run a fairly comprehensive internal
rail network. Major intercity trains operate on five main regional routes: the
Azarbaijan route (Tehran - Jolfa), the Golestan
route (Tehran - Gorgan), the Hormozgan route (Tehran - Bandar-e-Abbas), the Khorasan route (Tehran - Mashhad), and the Khuzetan route (Tehran - Khorramshahr).
There are many locations in the mountains and the deserts, which can only be reached
by rail. There are some air-conditioned cars, sleeping cars, and dining cars on
many trains. For further details, please visit RAJA website:


By Bus

Tehran has an extensive bus system.They
are widespread, cheap and comfortable.The tickets are bought in advance at
kiosks, and the intercity transportation in Iran is made by Benz and Volvo
buses under an organization named "Cooperative." Central offices of
these cooperatives in Tehran
are located in the South, East, and West Terminals.




South Terminal:

Tel: 550047-8

East Terminal:

Tel: 77864010

West Terminal:

Tel: 44659676


Subway & Tramway

Subway and tramway transportation is
possible mainly in Tehran
for the time being. The three main tram (electrically driven buses) routes are:
Imam Hussein Sq.-Depoy Sharq, Imam Hussein- Khorasan, and Khorasan-Depoy Besat (from
06:00 to 22:00). The subway connects

Tehran's easternmost and westernmost points and
the southern and northern tips of the city.



Taxis are available in all cities. The urban
taxis (orange or green) carry several passengers at a time and are much cheaper
than the private taxis. Unofficial taxis should be avoided; use only legitimate
taxis or those ordered through legitimate agencies. In most cities, taximeters
determine the fare, which is paid in Iran's currency, the Rial. However,
the taxis that are not equipped with taximeters do have fixed specified fares.

Note: It is advised to inquire about

The fare and reach an agreement with

The driver before getting into a private

Or hired taxi.


Car Rental

It is available in most cities and from airports.
An International Driving Permit is recommended but it is not a legal
requirement. Personal insurance is required.





Trade Agreements within IORA

To be updated soon ...

Chamber of Commerce

To be updated soon ...


To be updated soon ...

Trade Legislations

Trade Legislation in Islamic Republic of Iran: 

Iran's trade law is the most important codified set of rules for business in Iran
which forms the basis of commercial law.

 The law was passed in 1932 by Parliament as well as has been translated and produced Based on the 1807 French law (known as the Napoleonic Code)

Except in the case of co-operatives (the Reform Act of 1968 applies) and some provisions dealing and other provisions of bankruptcy, law stays to remain.

The principles of law relating to commercial transactions, business offices, commercial paper, and check, brokerage, business brokerage, freight contracts, vice president of business and other business representatives, warranties, bankruptcy, business name and legal personality are expressed.

Act of Joint stock companies in the Trade Act amended in 1968 and the new provisions for Joint stock companies in three hundred of article. So to get more information go to the following website:



 Iran Export-Import Laws and Regulations of 2011


With your Trusted Business, Trade and Commerce partner in Iran

Global trade is now more accessible than ever, but doing Import / Export business with Iran has tips you have to know. Hence to show entrepreneurs, small to large corporations, International Import/Export traders how to take advantage of the growing business opportunities available in Iran.

For more information about Iran Export-Import Laws and Regulations of 2011 go to following website:



Business Incentives in Iran

 Iran Trade & Business Directory 

Iran Trade & Business Directoryis an comprehensive collection that dedicated to promoting businesses and professionals

Worldwide. It is uniquely enhanced by the infusion of social

Networking tools.

You can list your business here for Free (basic listing) or for a small fee you can have a customized Full Page ad with images and videos to describe your business to a vast audience worldwide.

It is very unique and affordable

 As well as Iranian Business Directory, places to find business in Iran .so for more information go to following website:

Investment Opportunities in Iran

Foreign Investment

Foreign direct investment(FDI) or foreign investment refers to the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. It usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. There are two types of FDI: inward foreign direct investment and outward foreign direct investment, resulting in a net FDI inflow (positive or negative) and "stock of foreign direct investment", which is the cumulative number for a given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. FDI is one example of international factor movements.

To gain more information go to the following website:




7. Investment in Iran

There is no doubt; Iran has a lot of potential. It is a country that boasts a domestic market of 70 million people, 11% of the world's proven oil reserves, 15% of the world's proven gas reserves, 11 petrochemical complexes, 3 major steel plants and much more.

However, the big question for foreign companies and especially for small and medium-size enterprises is how to turn this potential into concrete business.

Foreign companies that have experienced Iran can tell many stories. The common theme in all these stories is that Iran is, in many ways, different from other markets even different from other markets in the Middle East. However the foreign companies generally did not understand the peculiarities of doing business in Iran exactly.

Every foreign company is in a different situation and there is no one, universally applicable rule on how to start and how to develop business in Iran. That said there are a number of common themes that apply to many small and medium-size foreign companies. Iran is certainly a unique market in the Middle East. It is populous, rich in natural resources and apt to technological progress and international developments. The country's natural resources create a significant wealth.

 In fact, based on a resource-based evaluation, the Iranian economy is the 20th strongest in the world.

On the following website, you can find the detailed information about foreign investment laws and regulations, contact information of Iran's ministries and other governmental sections, information about Diplomatic Consular and their commercial Attaché, international organization located in Iran and Iran International Exhibition:



Iran's Business Website

Iran is a market worth looking into. For example, trade between Canada and Iran is growing: in 1997, it totaled well over a billion dollars. As Iran rebuilds and prepares for the future, it needs foreign products and knows how.

Iran has a rapidly growing population and is establishing itself as a vital link with Central Asian republics. For firms willing to invest the time and energy, attractive opportunities exist.

 The following website contains business resources about Iran:


List of Private & Public companies

Conference & Exhibition Facilities

To be updated soon ...

Educational Opportunities

To be updated soon ...

Student Exchange Programmes

To be updated soon ...

IORA Member States Students in

To be updated soon ...

Scholarships for IORA Member States

To be updated soon ...

Why study in

To be updated soon ...

List of Public/Private Universities for Foreign Students

To be updated soon ...

Student Health Facilities

To be updated soon ...

Distance Education

To be updated soon ...

Visa Requirements

To be updated soon ...

Exhibitions Calendar

Iran Trade Exhibitions

Iran International Exhibitions Company (IIEC)oversees and operates all international and specialized exhibitions held in Iran. Site features exhibitions calendar and provides trade laws and regulations. IIEC is affiliated with the Iranian Ministry of Commerce. IIEC is located at the Tehran permanent fairground.

For more information go to the following website:

Updated List of Exhibition