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Official Name: Republic of India
Capital: New Delhi
Official Language: Hindi, English
Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)
Head of State: President H.E. Pranab Mukherjee
Head of Government: Prime Minister H.E. Narendra Modi
Foreign Minister: H.E. Sushma Swaraj
Government Website:
Date of joining: 07 March 1997



Advantage India

  • World's largest democracy with 1.2 billion people.
  • Stable political environment and responsive administrative set up.
  • Well established judiciary to enforce rule of law.
  • Land of abundant natural resources and diverse climatic conditions.
  • Rapid economic growth: GDP to grow by 8.5% in 2010-11* and 9.0% in 2011-12.
  • India's growth will start to outpace China's within three to five years and hence will become the fastest large economy with 9-10% growth over the next 20-25 years (Morgan Stanley).
  • Investor friendly policies and incentive based schemes.
  • Second most attractive Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) location in the world: India received a total of US$ 25.9 billion of FDI in 2009-10.
  • Healthy macro-economic fundamentals: Investment rate is expected to be 37% in 2010-11 and 38.4% in 2011-12 while Domestic Savings rate is expected to be 34% in 2010-11 and 36% in 2011-12.
  • India's economy will grow fivefold in the next 20 years (McKinsey).
  • Cost competitiveness; low labour costs.
  • Total labour force of nearly 530 million.
  • Large pool of skilled manpower; strong knowledge base with significant English speaking population.
  • Young country with a median age of 30 years by 2025: India's economy will benefit from this "demographic dividend".
  • The proportion of population in the working age group (15-59 years) is likely to increase from approximately 58% in 2001 to more than 64% by 2021.
  • Huge untapped market potential.
  • The urban population of India will double from the 2001 census figure of 290m to approximately 590m by 2030 (McKinsey).
  • Progressive simplification and rationalization of direct and indirect tax structures.
  • Reduction in import tariffs.
  • Full current account convertibility.
  • Compliance with WTO norms.
  • Robust banking and financial institutions.

"* India's financial year is from April to March. 2010-11 above means April 2010-March 2011."

Indian Economy

India has undergone a paradigm shift owing to its competitivestand in the world. The Indian economy is on a robust growth trajectory and boasts of a stable annual growth rate, rising foreign exchange reserves and booming capital markets among others.

Indian economy is estimated to grow at 8.5 percent in 2010-11 as compared to the growth rate of 8.0 percent in 2009-10. These GDP figures are based at factor cost at constant (2004-05) prices in the year 2010-11. A growth rate of 19.1 percent is estimated for GDP at current prices in the year 2010-11.

Agriculture Sector

According to the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC), agriculture sector has showed an upward revision as compared to their previous estimates in the production of wheat (84.27 million tonnes from 81.47 million tonnes), pulses (17.29 million tonnes from 16.51 million tonnes), oilseeds (302.51 lakh tonnes from 278.48 lakh tonnes) and sugarcane (340.54 million tonnes from 336.70 million tonnes) during 2010-11. Due to this upward revision in the production, agriculture, forestry and fishing sector in 2010-11 has shown a growth rate of 6.6 per cent, as against the previous growth rate of 5.4 per cent.

Industry Sector

The Index of Industrial Production of Mining (IIP-Mining) registered a growth rate of 5.9 per cent during 2010-11, as against the growth rate of 8.0 per cent during April-November, 2010, which was used in the Advance Estimates. Due to this decrease in the IIP-Mining, the growth rate in GDP is now estimated at 5.8 per cent, as against the Advance Estimates growth rate of 6.2 per cent.

Similarly, the IIP of manufacturing registered a growth rate of 8.1 per cent during 2010- 11, as against the growth rate of 10 per cent during April-November, 2010. Due to this decrease in the IIP, the growth rate in GDP of manufacturing sector is now estimated at 8.3 per cent, as against the Advance Estimates growth rate of 8.8 per cent.

Services Sector

The community, social and personal services sector has shown a rise in growth rate to 7.0 per cent in the Revised Estimates, as against the growth rate of 5.7 per cent in the Advance Estimates, mainly due to rise in total expenditure of Central Government than anticipated (during April-December, 2010, the total expenditure of Central Government showed an increase of 11.2 per cent over the corresponding period of previous year which
was extrapolated in the Advance Estimates, whereas the Revised Estimates, 2010-11 showed a rise of 19.4 per cent during 2010-11).

Country Name: Republic of India ; Bharat Ganrajya

Location: The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. India occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.

Geographic Coordinates: Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends
between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68°7' and 97°25' longitudes east of it.

Indian Standard Time: GMT + 05:30

Telephone Country Code: +91

Capital: New Delhi

Border Countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

Coastline: 7517 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Climate: The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical climate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons - winter (December-February), (ii) summer (March-June), (iii) south-west monsoon season (June-September), and (iv) post monsoon season (October- November).

Terrain: The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.

Natural Resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.


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India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a kaleidoscopic variety and rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all-round socio-economic progress during the last 64 years of its Independence. India has become self-sufficient in agricultural production and is now one of the top industrialized countries in the world and one of the few nations to have gone into outer space to conquer nature for the benefit of the people. It covers an area of 32,87,263 sq. km, extending from the snow-covered Himalayan heights to the tropical rain forests of the south. As the 7th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity. Bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.

Lying entirely in the northern hemisphere, the mainland extends between latitudes 8° 4' and 37° 6' north, longitudes 68° 7' and 97° 25' east and measures about 3,214 km from
north to south between the extreme latitudes and about 2,933 km from east to west between the extreme longitudes. It has a land frontier of about 15,200 km. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands and Andaman & Nicobar Islands is 7,516.6 km.

Nearly five thousand years back flourished India's first major civilisation along the Indus River valley. The twin cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa now in Pakistan were ruled by priests and held the rudiments of Hinduism. These civilisations are known to possess a sophisticated lifestyle, a highly developed sense of aesthetics, an astonishing knowledge of town planning and an undecipherable script language. The Indus civilization at one point of time extended nearly a million square kilometres across the Indus river valley. It existed at the same time as the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumer but far outlasted them. Surviving for nearly a thousand years the Indus valley civilisation fell to tectonic upheavals in about 1700 BC, which caused a series of floods.

The coming of the Aryans around 1500 BC, gave the final blow to the collapsing Indus Valley civilisation. At the dawn of Vedic ages the Aryans came in from the North and spread through large parts of India bringing with them their culture and religious beliefs. The Four Vedas or the important books of Hinduism were compiled in this period.

In 567 B.C. the founder of the Buddhist Religion Gautama Buddha was born. During this time lived Mahavira, who founded the Jain Religion. The Indian subcontinent is full of caves and monuments devoted to these religions and are worth a visit.

Two hundred years later, in the 4th century B.C., Emperor Ashoka, one of the greatest King of Indian history, led the Mauryan Empire to take over almost all of what is now modern India. This great leader embraced Buddhism and built the group of monuments at Sanchi (a UNESCO world heritage site). The Ashoka pillar at Sarnath has been adopted by India as its national emblem and the Dharma Chakra on the Ashoka Pillar adorns the National Flag.

They were followed by the Guptas in the north, while in the south part of India several different Hindu empires, the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras spread and grew, trading with Europe and other parts of Asia till the end of the 1100s.

Christianity entered India at about the same time from Europe. Legend has it that St. Thomas the Apostle arrived in India in 52 A.D. Even earlier than that people of the Jewish religion arrived on India's shores.

In approximately the 7th century A.D. a group of Zoroastrians, or Parsees, landed in Gujarat and became a part of the large mix of religions in India today, each of which adds its important and distinctive flavour.

In the 15th century Guru Nanak laid the foundation of the Sikh religion in Punjab

In 1192, Mohammed of Ghori, a ruler from Afghanistan, came into India and captured several places in the north including Delhi. When he went home he left one of his generals in charge who became the first Sultan of Delhi. During this time Islam, was introduced into a major part of Northern India. It may be mentioned that even before that, just after the period of the prophet, Islam was brought to the western coast of India by Arab traders and flourished in what is now Kerala.

The Dehli Sultanate gradually took control of more and more of North India over the next 200 years, till Timur, who was called "Timur the Lame" or "Tamberlane" came from Turkey in 1398 to attack India. He and his army stole all the valuables that they could carry and left again, and after that the Delhi Sultanate was never so strong again. Soon the Mughals, who were from Iran, came in and took control of the north.

In the meantime south, in 1336, the Hindu Vijayanagar empire was set up and became very strong.

The Europeans - Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish and British - started arriving in the early 1600s. All of them held territories in India and made friends and enemies among India's rulers as they got more and more involved, with the Indian politics, but it was the British who eventually controlled most of India and finally made it one of their colonies.

India got its independence from Britain in 1947 after a long struggle led mostly by Mahatma Gandhi. In the process of becoming independent, India became, two countries instead of one. In the years since independence India has made huge progress and coped with great problems, and has developed its industry and its agriculture, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world.



India is set apart from the rest of Asia by the Himalayas, the highest, youngest and still  evolving mountain chain on the planet. The subcontinent as it is rightly called, touches three large water bodies and is immediately recognizable on any world map. This thick, roughly triangular peninsula defines the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Arabian sea to the west, and the India Ocean to the south.

India holds virtually every kind of landscape imaginable. An abundance of mountain ranges and national parks provide ample opportunity for eco-tourism and trekking, and its sheer size promises something for everyone. From north to south India extends a good 2000 miles (3200 km), where the island nation of Sri Lanka seems to be squeezed out of India like a great tear, the synapse forming the Gulf of Mannar. 

Himalayas, the world's highest mountain chain and Nepal as its Neighbouring country dominate India's northern border. Following the sweeping mountains to the northeast, its borders narrow to a small channel that passes between Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, then spreads out again to meet Burma in the "eastern triangle." Apart from the Arabian Sea, its western border is defined exclusively by Pakistan.

North India is the country's largest region begins with Jammu and Kashmir, with terrain varying from arid mountains in the far north to the lake country and forests near Srinagar and Jammu. Moving south along the Indus river, the North becomes flatter and more hospitable, widening into the fertile plains of Punjab to the west and the Himalayan foothills of Uttar Pradesh and the Ganges river valley to the East. Cramped between these two states is the capital city, Delhi.

The states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, and part of the massive, central state of Madhya Pradesh constitute West India. Extending from the Gujarat peninsula down to Goa, the west coast is lined with some of India's best beaches. The land along the coast is typically lush with rainforests. The Western Ghats separate the verdant coast from the Vindya Mountains and the dry Deccan plateau further inland.

India is the home of the sacred River Ganges and the majority of Himalayan foothills, East India begins with the states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, which comprise the westernmost part of the region. East India also contains an area known as the eastern triangle, which is entirely distinct. This is the last gulp of land that extends beyond
Bangladesh, culminating in the Naga Hills along the Burmese border.

India reaches its peninsular tip with South India, which begins with the Deccan in the north and ends with Cape Comorin. The states in South India are Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala, a favourite leisure destination. The southeast coast, mirroring the west, also rests snugly beneath a mountain range---the Eastern Ghats.


Geographical information about India




The Indian peninsula is separated from mainland Asia by the Himalayas. The Country is   surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west, and the Indian Ocean to the south. 

Geographic Coordinates

 Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6'
 latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it.

Indian Standard Time

 GMT+ 05:30


3.3 Million sq. km

Telephone Country Code

Border Countries

Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea, formed by Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.


7,516.6 km encompassing the mainland, Lakshadweep Islands, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.


The climate of India can broadly be classified as a tropical monsoon one. But, in spite of much of the northern part of India lying beyond the tropical zone, the entire country has a tropical limate marked by relatively high temperatures and dry winters. There are four seasons:
  1. winter (December-February)  
  2. summer (March-June)  
  3. south-west monsoon season (June-September)  
  4. post monsoon season (October-November) 
Terrain The mainland comprises of four regions, namely the great mountain zone, plains of the Ganga and the Indus, the desert region, and the southern peninsula.
Natural Resources Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
  magnesite, limestone, arable land, dolomite, barytes, kaolin, gypsum, apatite, phosphorite, steatite, fluorite, etc.
Natural Hazards Monsoon floods, flash floods, earthquakes, droughts, and landslides.
Environment -Current Issues
Air pollution control, energy conservation, solid waste management, oil and gas conservation, forest conservation, etc.
 - International Agreements 
Rio Declaration on environment and development, Cartagena Protocol on biosafety, Kyoto   Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on climatic change, World Trade agreement, Helsinki Protocol to LRTAP on the reduction of sulphur emissions of nitrogen oxides or their transboundary, fluxes (Nox Protocol), and Geneva Protocol to LRTAP concerning the control of emissions of volatile organic compounds or their transboundary fluxes (VOCs Protocol).

Geography - Note

India occupies a major portion of the south Asian subcontinent.



Government & Politics

Government Type: Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.

Administrative Divisions: 28 States and 7 Union Territories.

Constitution: The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.  The Constitution of India is the fountain source of the legal system in the Country.

Executive Branch: The President of India is the Head of State, while the Prime  Minister is the Head of the Government and runs office with the support of the Council of Ministers who forms the Cabinet.

Legislative Branch: The Federal Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of  the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses of the Parliament.

Judicial Branch: The Supreme Court of India is the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts and subordinate Courts.

National Days:

  • 26th January (Republic Day)
  • 15th August (Independence Day)
  • 2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti; Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday)


People and lifestyle

In a country as diverse and complex as India, it is not surprising to find that people here reflect the rich glories of the past, the culture, traditions and values relative to geographic
locations and the numerous distinctive manners, habits and food that will always remain truly Indian. According to five thousand years of recorded history.

From the eternal snows of the Himalayas to the cultivated peninsula of far South, from the deserts of the West to the humid deltas of the East, from the dry heat and cold of the Central Plateau to the cool forest foothills, Indian lifestyles clearly glorify the geography. The food, clothing and habits of an Indian differ in accordance to the place of origin.

Indians believe in sharing happiness and sorrow. A festival or a celebration is never constrained to a family or a home. The whole community or neighbourhood is involved in bringing liveliness to an occasion. A lot of festivals like Diwali, Holi, Id, Christmas, Mahaveer Jayanthi are all celebrated by sharing sweets and pleasantries with family, neighbours and friends. An Indian wedding is an occasion that calls for participation of the family and friends. Similarly, neighbours and friends always help out a family in times of need.

Ethnically Indians speak different languages, follow different religions, eat the most diverse varieties of food all of which add to the rich Indian culture.The beauty of the Indian people lies in the spirit of tolerance, give-and-take and a composition of cultures that can be compared to a garden of flowers of various colours and shades of which, while maintaining their own entity, lend harmony and beauty to the garden - India!

Fairs and festival

The Colourful mosaic of Indian festivals and fairs - as diverse as the land, is an eternal expression of the spirit of celebration. Observed with enthusiasm and gaiety, festivals are like gems ornamenting the crown of Indian Culture. They are round the year vibrant interludes in the mundane routine of life.

Every season brings along new festivals, each a true celebration of the bounties of the rich traditions followed for time immemorial. That's not all! The birthdays of Gods and Goddesses, saints and prophets, great historical happenings and the advent of the New Year, all find expression in colourful festivities. The same festival, though celebrated differently in the various parts of the country, exhibits an eternal harmony of the spirit of celebration.

Packed with fun and excitement, festivals serve as an occasion to clean and decorate houses, to get together with friends and relatives and to exchange gifts. New attire, dance, music and rituals- all add to their joyful rhythm. It is a time for prayer, for pageantry and procession…a time to rejoice, in celebration of life.

Population (Census 2011): 1210.19 Million

Males: 623.72 Million,

Females: 586.46 Million)

Birth Rate (2001 census): 24.8 Percent

Death Rate (2001 census): 8.9 Percent

Density of Population (Census 2011): 382 Persons per square kilometer

Life expectancy at Birth (As of September 2005) :

Males: 63.9 Years,

Females: 66.9 Years

Ethnic Groups: All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.

Religions: According to the 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,028 million in the Country, Hindus constituted the majority with 80.5%, Muslims came second at 13.4%, followed by Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, and others.

Languages: There are 22 different languages that have been recognised by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. English has by law been designated the language for official purposes.

Literacy Rate (Census 2011): 74.04 Percent

Males: 31.98 Percent,

Females: 49.10 Percent


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Transportation & Communication


The Indian telecommunications Network is the fifth largest in the world and is the second largest among the emerging economies of Asia.

Today it is the fastest growing market in the world. Private operators have made mobile telephony the fastest growing (over 164% p.a.) in India.

With more than 33 million users (both CDMA and GSM), wireless is the principal growth engine of the Indian telecom industry. Intense competition between the four main private groups - Bharti, Hutch, Tata and Reliance and with the State sector incumbents-BSNL and MTNL has brought about a significant drop in tariffs.

The Government has played a key enabling role by deregulating and liberalising the industry, ushering in competition and paving the way for growth.


Social Indicators

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International Relations

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News & Media

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At a glance

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Public Holidays

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Capital City

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Major Tourist Attractions

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Planning Your Visit


Foreign Nationals desirous of coming into India are required to possess a valid passport of their country and a valid Indian Visa.

Foreign passengers should ensure that they are in possession of valid Indian Visa before they start their journey to India except nationals of Nepal and Bhutan who do not require visa to enter India and nationals of Maldives who do not require visa for entry in India for a period up to 90 days (a separate Visa regime exists for diplomatic/official passport holders).

The Consular Passport and Visa (CPV) Division of the Ministry of External Affairs is responsible for issuance of Indian visas to the foreign nationals for their visit for various purposes. This facility is granted through various Indian missions abroad.

Visa fees are non-refundable and subject to change without notice. The Embassy/High Commission/Consulate reserves the right on granting and deciding type/duration of visa irrespective of the fees tendered at the time of making application. Granting of Visa does not confer the right of entry to India and is subject to the discretion of the Immigration Authorities  Specific Visas are granted for a variety of purposes. Listed below are the types of visa; categorised on the basis of purpose of staying in India.


  Types of visa


Period Documents required

Tourist Visa

6 months Documents supporting the applicants financial standing
Business Visa One or more years Letter from the sponsoring organisation
Student Visa For the duration of the academic course of study or for a period
  of five years whichever is less
Proof of admission to recognized Universities/Institutions in India
Transit Visa Maximum For 15 Days Evidence of onward travel to a destination outside India
Conference Visa For the duration of the conference or seminar Letter of invitation from the organiser of the conference
Medical Visa Upto one year or the period of medical treatment whichever is less. Visa can be granted to Attendant who is a blood relation to the patient   and is co-terminus with the Medical Visa Documents from registered medical institutions/ doctors supporting the need for medical treatment along with letters from Indian medical institution.
Visa on Arrival Only for citizens of Finland, Luxembourg, Singapore, New Zealand, Japan, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia and Myanmar. (See Below of Details)

Tourist Visa on Arrival


The Government of India has announced a scheme of granting Tourist Visa on Arrival for the citizens of eleven countries. The scheme is valid for citizens of the countries mentioned below planning to visit India on single entry strictly for the purpose of tourism and for a short period of upto a maximum of 30 days. The salient features of the scheme are given below:


-Citizens with valid passports of the following countries:

Cambodia, Finland, Indonesia, Japan , Laos, Luxembourg, Myanmar, New Zealand,
Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam.
-Visiting India for the purpose of tourism (recreation, sight -seeing, visiting friends and relatives)
- Fulfills all other criteria for grant of normal tourist visa to India like assured financial
standing (production of return ticket and proof of availability of sufficient funds to spend in
India), passport of at least six month validity and reentry permit if required.


- Citizens of the above countries who was or whose parents or grand parents (paternal or maternal) was born in, and was permanently resident in Pakistan.
- Persons holding Diplomatic/ Official passports
- A person who is a resident of India and /or works in India
-A person who is declared persona non grata by Government of India and is not the subject of a black list or any warning circular or other restrictive list


The Visa on Arrival is valid for a single entry into India for a period of upto 30 (thirty) days.This Visa is non-extendable and non-convertible and will be issued at arrival only at the designated international airports of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.Only two visits on a Tourist Visa-on-Arrival shall be permissible in a calendar year and there shall be a gap of at least two months between each visit.


The fee for the visa on arrival is USD 60 (Sixty United States Dollars) or equivalent amount in Indian Rupees per passenger (including children)

Visa Application Form

Visa application form is available at the office of Indian Embassy/ High Commission /Consulate in the country where the applicant resides. Visa form for nationals of Pakistan and Bangladesh are generally different. All applicants, including children need to apply for Visa in separate visa forms.

Procedure for obtaining Visa

Visas can be applied for in person or by post at Indian Embassy/ High Commission/ Consulate based in the country from where the candidate intends to depart for India. You are requested to contact the nearest Indian mission for details.Specific visas are granted for a variety of purposes that are aforementioned.

Requirements for Visa

Generally the following documents are required for obtaining Indian Visa. However, the requirement may vary from country to country.

  • Original passport valid for at least 6 months
  • Visa fee
  • Two passport size photographs
  • Supporting documents, where necessary
  • Duly completed application form

Visa for NRIs and PIOs

Persons of Indian Origins and Non-Resident Indians who possess either OCI (Overseas Indian Citizenship) or PIO card don't need to apply separately for an Indian Visa. OCI and PIO cards give them the freedom to visit India without visa within rules. However, those NRIs and PIOs who don't have OCI or PIO card can apply for and get Indian visa through the procedure mentioned above.

Source: National Portal of India


The above is only for information. You are requested to contact the nearest Indian Mission (Embassy/ High Commission/ Consulate) or visit their websites for up-to-date information regarding visas, fees, procedures, etc.


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Airline and Local Transport

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Trade Agreements within IORA

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Chamber of Commerce

FICCI, Federation House
Tansen Marg
New Delhi-110001
+91-11-23738760-70 (11 line)
+91-11-23320714 (f)
[email protected] 


To be updated soon ...

Trade Legislations

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Business Incentives in India

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Investment Opportunities in India

To be updated soon ...

List of Private & Public companies

Conference & Exhibition Facilities

To be updated soon ...

Educational Opportunities


India has one of the largest Higher Education system in the world Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Education Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC.

India has one of the largest Higher Education system in the world 

Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Education Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC.

State Governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges, and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance.

The coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).

Special Constitutional responsibility of the Central Government: Education is on the 'Concurrent list' subject to Entry 66 in the Union List of the Constitution. This gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt. for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.

University Grants Commission (UGC) is responsible for coordination, determination and maintenance of standards, release of grants. Professional councils are responsible for recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions and providing grants to undergraduate programmes and various awards. The statutory professional councils are: 

All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)
Medical Council of India (MCI)

Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR)

National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
Dental Council of India (DCI)
Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
Indian Nursing Council (INC) 
Bar Council of India (BCI) 
Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM)
Council of Architecture
Rehabilitation Council 

University Grants Commission (UGC)
Association of Indian Universities (AIU)
Other Institutes of Higher Learning



Secondary Education is a crucial stage in the educational hierarchy as it prepares the students for higher education and also for the world of work. With the liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy, the rapid changes witnessed in scientific and technological world and the general need to improve the quality of life and to reduce poverty, it is essential that school leavers acquire a higher level of knowledge and skills than what they are provided in the 8 years of elementary education, particularly when the average earning of a secondary school certificate holder is significantly higher than that of a person who has studied only up to class VIII.   It is also necessary that besides general education up to secondary level, opportunities for improvement of vocational knowledge and skill should be provided at the higher secondary level to enable some students to be employable.

Universalizing access to secondary education

Following the Constitutional mandate to universalize elementary education, and success of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, it has become absolutely essential to push this vision forward to move towards universalisation of secondary education, which has already been achieved in a large number of developed countries and several developing countries. It is well recognized that eight years of education are insufficient to equip a child for the world of work as also to be a competent adult and citizen.

The Mid-Term Appraisal of the 10th Five Year Plan (June 2005) of the Planning Commission has suggested a new mission for secondary education on the lines of SSA (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan) pursuant to the success of SSA. The report of the Committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) on 'Universalisation of Secondary Education' (June 2005), which is the highest deliberative and advisory forum on Education in the country with Union Minister of Human Resource Development as Chairman and Education Ministers of all States and eminent educationists as its Members, had suggested urgent taking up of a programme in this behalf with certain norms. The CABE Committee on "Girls' Education & Common School System" in its report of June, 2005 had also, inter alia, recommended (i) making good quality education available to all students in all schools at affordable fees, (ii) investment in public schools system with standards, norms of Kendriya Vidyalayas.

While education is a concurrent subject, and secondary education primarily remains the responsibility of the State Governments, the Ministry of HRD has set its vision on making secondary education of good quality available, accessible & affordable to all young persons in the age group 15-16 years.

New initiatives launched in 2008-09

2008-09 has been a momentous year for secondary education and several major initiatives, including a new centrally sponsored scheme to universalize access to and improve quality of education at secondary stage, have been launched during the year. The impact of these
schemes will begin to be felt during the current year.

Several initiatives have also been taken by the Central Government during 11th Five Year Plan, as mentioned below:

  • RMSA, the scheme for universalizing secondary education. First phase of a new centrally sponsored scheme to establish one high quality model school in each block of the country to serve as schools of excellence has been launched from 2008-09.  
  • A National Merit-cum-Means Scholarships Scheme for award 1 lakh scholarships to Class 9 students every years @ Rs.6000 per year has been launched from 2008-09.  
  • A "National Scheme of Incentive to Girls for Secondary Education" has been  launched in June, 2008, to provide a one time incentive mainly to eligible girls belonging to SC/ST communities to continue secondary education.

Setting up of 20 Navodaya Vidyalayas in districts having a large concentration of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes has been sanctioned.  10 Schools will be set up in districts having a large concentration of Scheduled Castes and the remaining 10 in districts having
large concentration of Scheduled Tribes.

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About India Trade Promotion Organisation

India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO) is the nodal agency of the Government of India for promoting the country's external trade. ITPO, during its existence of nearly three decades, in the form of Trade Fair Authority of India and Trade Development Authority, has played a proactive role in catalysing trade, investment and technology transfer processes.

Its promotional tools include organizing of fairs and exhibitions in India and abroad, Buyer-Seller Meets, Contact Promotion Programmes, Product Promotion Programmes, Promotion through Overseas Department Stores, Market Surveys and Information Dissemination.
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