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Official Name: People's Republic of China
Capital: Beijing
Official Language: Standard Mandarin
Currency: Renminbi - Yuan (CNY)
Head of State: President H.E. Xi Jinping
Head of Government: Premier Li Keqiang
Foreign Minister: H.E. Mr Wang Yi
Government Website: //
Date of joining: 23 January 2000




Country Name (long form):

People's Republic of China

Country Name (short form):


Country Name (local long form):

Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo

Country Name (local short form):

Zhong Guo

China Government Type:

Communist state

Capital City:



221 BC (unification under the Qin Dynasty)

National Holiday:

Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)


most recent promulgation 4 December 1982; amended several times


18 years of age; universal

Legal System:

civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislation


Population of China

Confucianism has great influence on how the Chinese approach daily life. The elderly in China are respected. The Chinese people are known having good manners, hospitality, and are generally reserved in nature.

Keeping face means avoiding embarrassment, failure, defeat, or contradictions. Society is changing in China as economic opportunities expand. The goal of most families, for which they generally save for many years, is to build their own homes. Having a house is a symbol of a better life.

Most people also want their children to be well educated, attend a university, and to have greater prosperity than themselves. Foreign visitors should refrain from negative comments while visiting China.

Population of China


Nationality (noun)

Chinese (singular and plural)

Nationality (adjective)


Ethnic Groups

Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 8.1%


Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry)


China National Anthem

The March of the Volunteers (written in the midst of the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) by the noted poet and playwright Tian Han with music composed by Nie Er. This composition is a musical march.


The March of the Volunteers (Native in Pinyin)

Qilai! Buyuanzuo nulide renmen!
Ba womende xierou, zhucheng women xinde changcheng!
Zhonghua minzu daole zuiweixiande shihou,
meigeren beipozhe fachu zuihoude housheng.
Qilai! Qilai! Qilai!
Women wanzhong yixing,
maozhe dirende paohuo qianjin!
Maozhe dirende paohuo qianjin!
Qianjin! Qianjin! Jin!


China Flag

Date of Adoption: 1 October 1949

Flag Description

Red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner.

The red stands for communist revolution and the large star is a symbol of the communist party. The four smaller stars represent the workers, peasants, bourgeoisie and patriotic capitalists who are united in building communism.

China Climate and Weather

China Climate and Weather: The country lies almost entirely in the temperate zone. Only Hainan Province and the southernmost portions of Yunnan and Guangdong Provinces and the Zhuang Autonomous Region of Guangi lie within the tropics. A monsoon climate is a major influence in the south, but the north and west have a typical continental climate, although winters are extremely dry and summers quite rainy.

During summer, warm, moist, maritime air masses bring heavy rains to eastern China, and hot, humid, summer weather is typical. Winter offers a sharp contrast, when cold, dry Siberian air masses dominate and often reach the southern provinces. Little precipitation falls during the colder months; clear days with low humidity and low temperatures are the norm.




History of China

THE HISTORY OF CHINA, as documented in ancient writings, dates back some 3,300 years. Modern archaeological studies provide evidence of still more ancient origins in a culture that flourished between 2500 and 2000 B.C. in what is now central China and the lower Huang He (Yellow River) Valley of north China. Centuries of migration, amalgamation, and development brought about a distinctive system of writing, philosophy, art, and political organization that came to be recognizable as Chinese civilization. What makes the civilization unique in world history is its continuity through over 4,000 years to the present century.

The Chinese have developed a strong sense of their real and mythological origins and have kept voluminous records since very early times. It is largely as a result of these records that knowledge concerning the ancient past, not only of China but also of its neighbors, has survived.

Chinese history, until the twentieth century, was written mostly by members of the ruling scholar-official class and was meant to provide the ruler with precedents to guide or justify his policies. These accounts focused on dynastic politics and colorful court histories and included developments among the commoners only as backdrops. The historians described a Chinese political pattern of dynasties, one following another in a cycle of ascent, achievement, decay, and rebirth under a new family.

Of the consistent traits identified by independent historians, a salient one has been the capacity of the Chinese to absorb the people of surrounding areas into their own civilization. Their success can be attributed to the superiority of their ideographic written language, their technology, and their political institutions; the refinement of their artistic and intellectual creativity; and the sheer weight of their numbers. The process of assimilation continued over the centuries through conquest and colonization until what is now known as China Proper was brought under unified rule. The Chinese also left an enduring mark on people beyond their borders, especially the Koreans, Japanese, and Vietnamese.

Another recurrent historical theme has been the unceasing struggle of the sedentary Chinese against the threat posed to their safety and way of life by non-Chinese peoples on the margins of
their territory in the north, northeast, and northwest. In the thirteenth century, the Mongols from the northern steppes became the first alien people to conquer all China. Although not as culturally developed as the Chinese, they left some imprint on Chinese civilization while heightening Chinese perceptions of threat from the north. China came under alien rule for the second time in the mid-seventeenth century; the conquerors--the Manchus-- came again from the north and northeast.

For centuries virtually all the foreigners that Chinese rulers saw came from the less developed societies along their land borders. This circumstance conditioned the Chinese view of the outside world. The Chinese saw their domain as the self-sufficient center of the universe and derived from this image the traditional (and still used) Chinese name for their country--Zhongguo, literally, Middle Kingdom or Central Nation. China saw itself surrounded on all sides by so-called barbarian peoples whose cultures were demonstrably inferior by Chinese standards. This China-centered ("sinocentric") view of the world was still undisturbed in the nineteenth century, at the time of the first serious confrontation with the West. China had taken it for granted that its relations with Europeans would be conducted according to the tributary system that had evolved over the centuries between the emperor and representatives of the lesser states on China's borders as well as between the emperor and some earlier European visitors. But by the mid-nineteenth century, humiliated militarily by superior Western weaponry and technology and faced with imminent territorial dismemberment, China began to reassess its position with respect to Western civilization. By 1911 the two-millennia-old dynastic system of imperial government was brought down by its inability to make this adjustment successfully.

Because of its length and complexity, the history of the Middle Kingdom lends itself to varied interpretation. After the communist takeover in 1949, historians in mainland China wrote their own version of the past--a history of China built on a Marxist model of progression from primitive communism to slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and finally socialism. The events of history came to be presented as a function of the class struggle. Historiography became subordinated to proletarian politics fashioned and directed by the Chinese Communist Party. A series of thought-reform and ant rightist campaigns were directed against intellectuals in the
arts, sciences, and academic community. The Cultural Revolution (1966-76) further altered the objectivity of historians. In the years after the death of Mao Zedong in 1976, however, interest grew within the party, and outside it as well, in restoring the integrity of historical inquiry. This trend was consistent with the party's commitment to "seeking truth from facts." As a result,
historians and social scientists raised probing questions concerning the state of historiography in China. Their investigations included not only historical study of traditional China but penetrating inquiries into modern Chinese history and the history of the Chinese Communist Party.

In post-Mao China, the discipline of historiography has not been separated from politics, although a much greater range of historical topics has been discussed. Figures from Confucius-who was bitterly excoriated for his "feudal" outlook by Cultural Revolution-era historians--to Mao himself have been evaluated with increasing flexibility. Among the criticisms made by Chinese social scientists is that Maoist-era historiography distorted Marxist and Leninist interpretations. This meant that considerable revision of historical texts was in order in the 1980s, although no substantive change away from the conventional Marxist approach was likely. Historical institutes were restored within the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, and a growing corps of trained historians, in institutes and academia alike, returned to their work with the blessing of the Chinese Communist Party. This in itself was a potentially significant development.

China Timeline


China Timeline Event

2000 BC

Xia Dynasty. The first prehistoric dynasty is said to be Xia, from about the twenty-first to the sixteenth century BC. The Xia Dynasty is traditionallly supposed to have begun with the reign of Yu the Great and ended with the fall of Jie, lasting for more than 400 years. There were altogether seventeen kings in fourteen generations. According to an ancient version of history, however, it was not Yu, but his son Qi, who founded the dynasty.

1600 BC

Shang Dynasty. The Shang dynasty becomes first dynasty to leave historical records.

1046 BC

Western Zhou.  Western Zhou period covered twelve emperors lasting for about 275 years.

770 BC

Spring and Autumn period.  Ch'un-ch'iu (Spring and Autumn) period of the Chou dynasty. Chou royal line is broken, feudal system in decline.

770 BC

Eastern Zhou.

475 BC

Warring States period.

221 BC

Qin. Ch'in ruling house survives Ch'un-ch'iu power struggle and initiates the first imperial dynasty, the Ch'in. Shih huang-ti unifies China and becomes first Chinese emperor. Defensive walls in north of China are connected and strengthened into what will become the Great Wall of China.

206 BC

Western Han.  The Han dynasty founded by Liu Pang, the first long lasting imperial dynasty.


Xin (Wang Mang interregnum). Wang Mang was a nephew of Emperor Yuan Di's consort and from 1 C.E. was the underage Emperor's regent. In 9 C.E. he took the imperial title himself and founded the Xin dynasty. He tried to curb the rising power and wealth of the landowners by nationalizing all estates and serfs. He wished to divide the land among the peasants.


Three Kingdoms (San Guo). Single Han empire split into the Three Kingdoms when the last Han emperor cedes authority to Wei, the son of a warlord. Shortly after, two other military leaders declare themselves emperor, Shu-Han in the interior, and Wu, in the south. The Three Kingdoms period is marked by civil war.




Shu was part of the Three Kingdoms in Chinese history.


Wu Dynasty was part of the Three Kingdoms in Chinese history.


Eastern Jin.


Northern Dynasties.


Northern Wei.


Southern Dynasties. The Song Dynasty established by Liu Yu and the three successive dynasties of Southern Qi, Liang and Chen are known as the Southern Dynasties.


Song Dynasty was part of the Southern Dynasties in Chinese history.


Qi was the second of the Southern dynasties in China.


Liang was the third of Southern dynasties in China.


Eastern Wei Dynasty was the second of the Northern Dynasties.


Western Wei was the third of the Northern Dynasties.


Northern Qi. The Northern Qi Dynasty was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history.


Chen was the fourth and the last of the Southern dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui Dynasty.


The general Yang Chien usurps the northern throne and founds the Sui dynasty.


Tang Dynasty. The Tang Dynasty is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization, equal to or surpassing that of the earlier Han Dynasty as well as a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.


Five Dynasties. Fall of the T'ang dynasty gives rise to the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Five short-lived dynasties subsequently control northern China, while ten stable regimes control sections of southern and western China.


Ten Kingdoms was an era of political upheaval in China, between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the founding of the Song Dynasty. During this period, five dynasties quickly succeeded one another in the north, and more than 12 independent states were established, mainly in the south. However, only ten are traditionally listed, hence the era's name, Ten Kingdoms.


The Liao Dynasty, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in East Asia that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper.


Song Dynasty. Fifty years after the official end of the Tang, an imperial army re-unified China and established the Song dynasty.


Northern Song. Chao K'uang-yin (better known as T'ai-tsu), a military leader, stages a coup and usurps the throne from the Wu-tai, last of the Five Dynasties. Under the Pei Sung (Northern Sung) dynasty, the civil service system achieves its most sophisticated form.


Western Xia. The tribe founding a dynasty after Chinese pattern were the Tanguts, relatives to the Tibetians, who founded a Western Xia Dynasty.


Jin Dynasty.


Yuan Dynasty. Mongol invasion topples the Sung dynasty when the boy emperor and a loyal minister commit suicide by jumping into the sea, beginning the Mongolian Yuan dynasty under Kublai Khan.


Ming Dynasty. A weak emperor and increasing militarization of Chinese society encourages the formation of rebel movements following disastrous flooding in 1351, which culminate with the fall of the Mongol emperor. An ex-Buddhist priest, Chu Yuan-chang, becomes the Hung-wu emperor, founding the Ming dynasty, one of the stablest and longest dynasties in Chinese history.


The Manchus took over China and founded the Qing dynasty.


Hung Hsiu-ch'uan fails his civil service examination, goes into a trance and discovers that he is the Son of God. He declares the T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo, the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, and kicks off the Taiping rebellion, the bloodiest civil war in history.


Chinese Revolution. Yuan Shih-k'ai is recalled from retirement to take command of army to put down the revolution. He negotiates with the revolutionaries, with the hope of being instituted as the head of a new government, but is disappointed when Sun Yat-sen is appointed president of the new republic.


Civil war begins, Nationalists vs. Communists.


People's Republic of China established with the victory of the Communists.


China intervenes in the Korean War on the side of North Korea. Tibet becomes part of the People's Republic of China.


Chinese forces suppress large-scale revolt in Tibet.


Brief conflict with India over disputed Himalayan border.


Diplomatic relations established with the US. Government imposes one-child policy in effort to curb population growth.


Troops open fire on demonstrators who have camped for weeks in Tiananmen Square initially to demand the posthumous rehabilitation of former CCP General Secretary Hu Yaobang, who was forced to resign in 1987. The official death toll is 200. International outrage leads to sanctions.


Russia and China sign declaration restoring friendly ties.


Launch of China's first manned spacecraft.  Astronaut Yang Liwei is sent into space by a Long March 2F rocket.


Beijing, China hosts Summer Olympic Games.


Anti-China protests escalate into the worst violence Tibet has seen in 20 years, five months before Beijing hosts the Olympic Games. Pro-Tibet activists in several countries focus world attention on the region by disrupting progress of the Olympic torch relay.


First sign of relaxation of strictly enforced one-child policy, as officials in Shanghai urge parents to have a second child in effort to counter effects of ageing population.



China Geography

Environmental Issues:air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species

Total Area:

3,705,407 (sq miles), 9,596,960 (sq kilometers)

Land Area:

3,600,947 (sq miles), 9,326,410 (sq kilometers)

Water Area:

104,460 (sq miles), 270,550 (sq kilometers)

Land Boundaries:

13,743 (miles), 22,117 (kilometers)

Irrigated Land:

247,650 (sq miles), 641,410 (sq kilometers)

Border Countries:

Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Mongolia 4,677 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikis


5,598 (sq miles), 14,500 (sq kilometers)

Geographic Coordinates:

35 00 N, 105 00 E


mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east

Highest Point:

Mount Everest 8,850 m

Lowest Point:

Turpan Pendi -154 m

Natural Resources:

coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Natural Hazards:

frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence

China Geography:Occupying an area of about 3.7 million square miles, the People's Republic of China (P.R.C.) is the third-largest country in the world, after Canada and Russia. It shares borders with North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Laos, and Vietnam. Hong Kong and Macau (Aomen), situated on China's southern coast, are now Special Administrative Regions of the P.R.C.

Two-thirds of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about one-tenth is cultivated. Ninety percent of its people live on one-sixth of the land, primarily in the fertile plains and deltas of the east.

Government & Politics



Chief of State:President HU Jintao (Since 03/15/2003)
Head of Government: Premier WEN Jiabao (Since 03/16/03)
Cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress (NPC)
Elections: and vice president elected by National People's Congress for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held 15-17 March 2008 (next to be held in mid-March 2013); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress
Election Results: HU Jintao elected president by National People's Congress with a total of 2,963 votes; XI Jinping elected vice president with a total of 2,919 votes

Legislative Branch:uunicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms) elections: last held in December 2007-February 2008 (date of next election to be held in late 2012 to early 2013) election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987 note: only members of the CCP, its eight allied parties, and sympathetic independent candidates are elected

Judicial Branch:Supreme People's Court (judges appointed by the National People's Congress); Local Peoples Courts (comprise higher, intermediate, and local courts); Special Peoples Courts (primarily military, maritime, and railway transport courts)

Administrative Divisions:23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**, Chongqing**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet), Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau

Political Parties and Leaders:Chinese Communist Party or CCP [HU Jintao]; eight registered small parties controlled by CCP

Political Pressure Groups and Leaders:no substantial political opposition groups exist


China People

Percent of Population Age 0 to 14:


Male Children Age 0 to 14:


Female Children Age 0 to 14 :


Percent of Population Age 15 to 64:


Males Age 15 to 64:


Females Age 15 to 64:


Percent of Population Over 64:


Males Over 64:


Females Over 64:


Median Age:


Median Age (male):


Median Age (female):


Population Growth Rate:


Birth Rate:

12.29 births/1,000 population

Death Rate:

7.03 deaths/1,000 population

Net Migration Rate:

-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population

Infant Mortality Rate:

16.06 deaths/1,000 live births

Life Expectancy at Birth:


Total Fertility Rate:

1.54 children born/woman

Sex Ratio (at birth):

1.13 male(s)/female

Sex Ratio (under 15 years):

1.17 male(s)/female

Sex Ratio (15 to 64 years):

1.06 male(s)/female

Sex Ratio (65 years and older):

0.93 male(s)/female

Sex Ratio Total Population:

1.06 male(s)/female


Age Structure: Age Structure is the distribution of the population according to age. The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.




China Economy

China Economy: In late 1978 the Chinese leadership began moving the economy from a sluggish, inefficient, Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more market-oriented system. Whereas the system operates within a political framework of strict Communist control, the economic influence of non-state organizations and individual citizens has been steadily increasing. The authorities switched to a system of household and village responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprises in services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a quadrupling of GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis, China in 2003 became the second-largest economy in the world after the United States, although in per capita terms the country is still poor. Agriculture and industry have posted major gains especially in coastal areas near Hong Kong, opposite Taiwan, and in Shanghai, where foreign investment has helped spur output of both domestic and export goods. The leadership, however, often has experienced - as a result of its hybrid system - the worst results of socialism (bureaucracy and lassitude) and of capitalism (growing income disparities and rising unemployment). China thus has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals. The government has struggled to (a) sustain adequate jobs growth for tens of millions of workers laid off from state-owned enterprises, migrants, and new entrants to the work force; (b) reduce corruption and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large state-owned enterprises, many of which had been shielded from competition by subsidies and had been losing the ability to pay full wages and pensions. From 80 to 120 million surplus rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many subsisting through part-time, low-paying jobs. Popular resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to maintaining long-term growth in living standards. Another long-term threat to growth is the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the north. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. Beijing says it will intensify efforts to stimulate growth through spending on infrastructure - such as water supply and power grids - and poverty relief and through rural tax reform. Accession to the World Trade Organization helps strengthen its ability to maintain strong growth rates but at the same time puts additional pressure on the hybrid system of strong political controls and growing market influences. China has benefited from a huge expansion in computer internet use. Foreign investment remains a strong element in China's remarkable economic growth. Growing shortages of electric power and raw materials may hold back the expansion of industrial output.


$10,090,000,000,000 (USD)

GDP Per Capita

$7,600 (USD)

Population Below Poverty Line


Inflation Rate


Labor Force


Labor Force By Occupation

agriculture 50%; industry 22%; services 28%

Unemployment Rate


Fiscal Year

calendar year

Annual Budget

$1,149,000,000,000 (USD)


iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers, footwear, toys, food processing, automobiles, consumer electronics, telecommunications

Industrial Growth Rate


Agriculture Products

rice, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, cotton, oilseed, pork, fish

Currency Code



Transportation & Communication

Social Indicators

China Literacy


Standard Chinese (putonghua), based on the Mandarin dialect, is the national language and is spoken by more than 70 percent of the population. Other dialects are also spoken, including Wu (in Shanghai), Min, Yue (Cantonese), and Kejja. Each of the 55 minorities speaks its own language or dialect. In some cases, education and all official transactions may be conducted in the local minority language. Chinese does not have a phonetic alphabet; it uses characters to express words, thoughts, or principles. A Romanized alphabet Pinyin is used to help teach Chinese in school and for international communication. Even though there are over 50,000 characters in the Chinese alphabet, only about 8,000 are actually in use. The Chinese language requires that one knows 1,500 to 2,000 characters to be considered fluent in the language.

Literacy Definition:

age 15 and over can read and write

Literacy Rate Total Population:


Literacy Rate Males:


Literacy Rate Female:



Literacy Rate:The ability to read and write at a specified age. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

International Relation

International Organization Participation:ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UN Security Council, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

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